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Preparation professorat de sport betting

In this line, an association between scores on both subscales and discounting rates has been previously reported 61 , 76 , Altogether, this pattern of results is likely to contribute to the tendency of GDPs to favor immediate bets, despite the negative consequences of their gambling behavior. This lack of group effect concerned not only behavioral motor inhibition, such as assessed by the stop-signal and the anti-saccade tasks, but also impulsivity trait, as scores at the motor subscale of the BIS questionnaire were not significantly different between both groups.

This result contrasts with recent meta-analyses suggesting higher rapid response impulsivity in subjects suffering from pathological gambling 30 , 78 , although some studies failed to identify a deficit 79 , Nonetheless, the present results need to be put into perspective in several ways. Hence, it might be that GDPs strategically slowed down in anticipation of the stop-signals to compensate for a potential inhibitory deficit, even though blocks without stop-signals would have been required to ascertain this hypothesis.

Besides, the slowness reported in GDPs might have prevented us from highlighting a lack of response inhibition. Indeed, while the tracking procedure was efficient, the SSD had to drastically increase to adapt to the slower responses of GDPs. Consequently, the number of trials was probably insufficient in the present study to allow the SSD to reach a relatively steady value at which the SSRT can be computed reliably.

Moreover, despite the overall lack of group effect in the anti-saccade task, we found an interesting positive correlation between the number of DSM-V criteria and the anti-saccade cost, which was quite variable in GDPs. In fact, and in line with previous works 35 , 36 , 81 , this association indicates that a deficit in rapid response impulsivity only concerned the most severe forms of pathological gambling, contrary to choice impulsivity, which was higher regardless of gambling severity.

Finally, it is worth noting that GDPs tended to score higher at the motor subscale of the BIS questionnaire, and that the lack of significant difference is likely to result from our small sample size. The current findings in GDPs contrast considerably with our prior observations in alcohol-dependent patients ADPs , which revealed a major lack of preparatory suppression, especially in the patients who relapsed during the year following the testing 9. As GDPs are preserved from the neurotoxic influence of drugs of abuse, one straightforward interpretation of the discrepancy between both studies is that the lack of preparatory suppression observed in ADPs arises as a consequence of chronic alcohol consumption.

Accordingly, it has been shown that the lateral prefrontal cortex—i. Hence, it is plausible that this prefrontal source of preparatory suppression is specifically reduced in ADPs after years of alcohol abuse. Future studies, combing structural magnetic resonance imaging to quantify the brain damage and TMS to assess preparatory suppression in ADPs, are required to conclude on this point.

Moreover, it would be interesting to investigate whether the lack of preparatory suppression extends to other substance use disorders. Yet, it is noteworthy that structural and functional prefrontal alterations still exist in GDPs 84 — 88 , even in the absence of any substance use disorder comorbidity In particular, an increasing literature has led to consider the neuromodulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, using high-frequency repetitive TMS, as a potential treatment for GD 66 , with encouraging results in terms of craving reduction 90 — 92 , but not regarding inhibitory control That being said, the absence of deficit in preparatory suppression reported in GDPs makes it an unlikely common vulnerability marker of whether one is going to develop an addiction or not.

The present finding that preparatory suppression was comparable in GDPs and HCs should be interpreted with caution and requires further evidences as the current study suffer from several limitations. First, GDPs represent a highly heterogeneous group, characterized by different impairments depending on the form of gambling in which they engage 32 , Although impulsivity is an important ethiological factor for GD, the recognized pathway model of Blaszczynski and Nower 95 posits that it represents only one of the three routes than can lead to pathological gambling.

Hence, it is likely that our results reflect the average of different GD profiles, and that our findings would have been more similar to those observed in ADPs if we had only included GDPs from the impulsivity pathway. Second, the power of our study is rather low given our small sample sizes. Yet, this is the best we could do in view of the real challenge of recruiting patients suffering of GD only. Indeed, many GDPs show high extent of comorbidity with alcohol and substance use disorders 96 , preventing them from participating in experiments aiming at assessing the neuropsychological profile exclusively associated with GD.

Finally, our sample was entirely male. Although this is consistent with gender biases in the GD population 30 , 76 , 94 , this limits the generalizability of our findings to females. In summary, although we found some alterations in several aspects of inhibitory control in the sample of GDPs tested in the current study, preparatory suppression was not deficient in these patients.

This finding contrasts with prior observations reported in subjects suffering from an alcohol use disorder, suggesting that a lack of preparatory suppression does not represent a common feature shared by behavioral and substance-related addictions. Critically, future studies would gain from taking into account the large heterogeneity in GDP profiles and possibly focus on patients that are part of the impulsivity pathway.

CQ and JG: performed the experiments. CQ and JG: analyzed data. CQ and JD: wrote the article. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychiatry v. Front Psychiatry. Published online Jun Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

This article was submitted to Addictive Disorders, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry. Received Mar 12; Accepted Jun The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Data Availability Statement The datasets generated for this study are available on request to the corresponding author. Abstract A lack of inhibitory control appears to contribute to the development and maintenance of addictive disorders. Keywords: gambling disorder, addiction, inhibitory control, impulsivity, transcranial magnetic stimulation, motor system, action preparation.

Introduction Self-regulation is essential to behave in a goal-directed manner. Materials and Methods Participants Thirteen right-handed individuals with a diagnosis of GD were included in the study. Anti-Saccade Task In this task [adapted from 52 ], participants performed three different blocks, all of them involving a similar procedure.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Experimental Design Participants sat in front of the computer screen with forearms resting in a semi-flexed position and hands placed palms down on a home-made response device developed in our laboratory to detect any horizontal movement of the index fingers Figure 1D.

Behavioral Measures of Motor Inhibition To compare motor inhibition in both groups, independent sample t-tests were performed on the critical measures specific to each task, i. Exploratory Analyses on the Relationships With Gambling Severity In order to assess the potential link between the total number of DSM-V criteria and psychopathological variables as well as our different measures of inhibition in GDPs, partial Pearson's correlations were performed in these subjects, using the factor AGE as a covariate.

NS, non-significant. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Behavior The RTs measured during the rolling ball task are shown in Figure 6. Figure 6. Figure 7. Data Availability Statement The datasets generated for this study are available on request to the corresponding author.

Conflict of Interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References 1. Bari A, Robbins TW. Inhibition and impulsivity: Behavioral and neural basis of response control. Prog Neurobiol — Bestmann S, Duque J. Neurosci 22 — Neuropsychol Rev 29 — Cognitive control in alcohol use disorder: Deficits and clinical relevance. Rev Neurosci 25 :1— Trends Neurosci 40 — Stopping a response has global or nonglobal effects on the motor system depending on preparation.

Stop-related subthalamic beta activity indexes global motor suppression in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 31 — Investigating the effect of anticipating a startling acoustic stimulus on preparatory inhibition. Neurophysiol Clin 49 — Deficient inhibition in alcohol-dependence: let's consider the role of the motor system! Neuropsychopharmacology — J Neurosci 32 — Cereb Cortex 26 — Planning face, hand, and leg movements: Anatomical constraints on preparatory inhibition.

J Neurophysiol — Sinclair C, Hammond GR. Excitatory and inhibitory processes in primary motor cortex during the foreperiod of a warned reaction time task are unrelated to response expectancy. Exp Brain Res — Inhibition during response preparation is sensitive to response complexity.

Comparison of the two cerebral hemispheres in inhibitory processes operative during movement preparation. Neuroimage — Front Neurosci 12 :1— Duque J, Ivry RB. Role of Corticospinal Suppression during Motor Preparation. Cereb Cortex 19 — Front Aging Neurosci 8. Top-down suppression of incompatible motor activations during response selection under conflict. Neuroimage 86 — Impulsivity, frontal lobes and risk for addiction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 93 — Changes of frontal cortical subregion volumes in alcohol dependent individuals during early abstinence: associations with treatment outcome.

Brain Imaging Behav Neuroimaging in alcohol use disorder: From mouse to man. J Neurosci Res 1— Respective influence of current alcohol consumption and duration of heavy drinking on brain morphological alterations in alcohol use disorder. Addict Biol , e Family History as a Predictor of Alcohol Dependence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 16 —5. Alcohol Alcohol 53 — Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32 — Developmental trajectory classes in substance use disorder etiology. Psychol Addict Behav 21 — Modeling the pathways linking childhood hyperactivity and substance use disorder in young adulthood.

J Gambl Stud 33 — Behavioural addiction—A rising tide? Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 26 — Investigation of impulsivity in a sample of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers: A multidimensional perspective. Psychiatry Res —6. Front Psychiatry 9 :1— Dimensions and disorder specificity of impulsivity in pathological gambling.

Addict Behav 39 — PloS One 7 :e A neurocognitive comparison of cognitive flexibility and response inhibition in gamblers with varying degrees of clinical severity. Psychol Med 41 —9. Is gambling disorder associated with impulsivity traits measured by the UPPS-P and is this association moderated by sex and age? Compr Psychiatry 72 — Am J Psychiatry —8. Int J Addict 26 — Bruchon-Schweitzer M, Paulhan I. Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

Beck AT. A systematic investigation of depression. Compr Psychiatry 2 — Collet L, Cottraux J. Can J Psychiatry 45 — Factor structure of the Barratt impulsiveness scale. J Clin Psychol 51 — Compr Psychiatry 53 — Validation of the UPPS impulsive behaviour scale: a four-factor model of impulsivity. Eur J Pers 19 — Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls. J Exp Psychol Gen — Verbruggen F, Logan GD. Response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm.

Trends Cognit Sci 12 — A consensus guide to capturing the ability to inhibit actions and impulsive behaviors in the stop-signal task. Elife 8 :1— Prefrontal cognitive processes: Working memory and inhibition in the antisaccade task. Brainard DH. The Psychophysics Toolbox.

Spat Vis 10 —6. Pelli DG. The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies. Spat Vis 10 — Preparatory inhibition: Impact of choice in reaction time tasks. Neuropsychologia — Towards assessing corticospinal excitability bilaterally: Validation of a double-coil TMS method. J Neurosci Methods —8. Front Hum Neurosci 10 :1— Advanced TMS approaches to probe corticospinal excitability during action preparation.

Neuroimage Functional relevance of abnormal fMRI activation pattern after unilateral schizencephaly. Neuroreport 13 —4. PloS One 11 :e Syntax for calculation of discounting indices from the monetary choice questionnaire and probability discounting questionnaire. J Exp Anal Behav — Delay discounting and impulsivity traits in young and older gambling disorder patients. Addict Behav 71 — Comparison of different baseline conditions in evaluating factors that influence motor cortex excitability.

Brain Stimul 4 —5. Introduction to Behavioral Addictions. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 36 — Disordered gambling: a behavioral addiction. Curr Opin Neurobiol 23 —9. Neural correlates of cue- and stress-induced craving in gambling disorders: implications for transcranial magnetic stimulation interventions.

Eur J Neurosci 50 — Bestmann S, Krakauer JW. The uses and interpretations of the motor-evoked potential for understanding behaviour. Neural correlates of proactive and reactive motor response inhibition of gambling stimuli in frequent gamblers.

Sci Rep 7 :1— Imbalance in the sensitivity to different types of rewards in pathological gambling. Brain — Understanding the construct of impulsivity and its relationship to alcohol use disorders. Addict Biol 15 — They also understand that live music will probably be one of the last things to return after the virus is fully defeated. The butcher shop and restaurant opened in and was mostly frequented by locals, Doll said. But one customer — a local musician — came in each year two months ahead of Fat Tuesday to order a full prime rib rack so it could be properly aged before a big pre-Lent feast.

After a months long struggle, Doll closed his doors in November and is now looking for work. He said he was able to stay afloat until late summer, when a weekly boost in unemployment benefits ran out and business plummeted. The storm cut power for five days and forced him to throw out thousands of dollars in meat. Claude in , closed for a few months after Hurricane Katrina hit in , and then literally never closed again.

The bar was open 24 hours a day, seven days a week until the pandemic. Guidos has been doing needed renovations while thinking about how to reopen — slowly — and talking with the restaurant owner next door about how to use the patio they share. Her goal is to find a way forward. And her employees would be hard pressed to find other jobs if she closed.

Back at the Elysian Fields Inn, Hagan misses her regular guests. Many return each year for Mardi Gras parades or Jazz Fest, which was cancelled last year and postponed this year. She has considered closing. But she gets joy from running the business and helping people experience New Orleans. I want to keep doing this. On Feb. She has spoken with neighbours, who have also seen the coyotes and found tracks on their property.

Part of the beauty of her location is the regular sightings of deer, raccoons, rabbits and even a porcupine. She is just looking for alternatives to keep her family and pets safe. I feel like eventually something or somebody is going to get hurt. She began by contacting the OPP, who referred her to a nuisance control company in Goderich, where she was told that nothing would be done unless the coyote hurt or killed someone. Her backyard sits at the edge of a ravine, filled with downed trees and brush.

The ravine provides an ample supply of small animals, water and shelter. Falconer has some suggestions for homeowners who spot coyotes near their property. Coyotes are less likely to approach if they see a human. Other suggestions include installing motion-sensitive lights and fencing the property. She said coyotes can also be attracted to animals in heat, to a scent not emitted by spayed or neutered pets.

Dave Loerchner is a nuisance animal control specialist and the owner of Critter Guy in Bayfield. He says there must be an incident before the government will step in and take action against an animal. This rule applies only in rural areas. In urban settings, the rules are more complicated as it is illegal to use a firearm in town. Loerchner says there are also rules surrounding the trapping and relocation of coyotes.

He said a homeowner can hire a trapper at their own expense, but there are rules in place concerning relocation. There are also concerns about putting an animal, which may be carrying a disease, into another environment and spreading the disease. His suggestions for homeowners that find they are being visited by unwanted guests echo those of Falconer.

Stay outside with pets and stick to daylight hours. He says coyotes are very smart, and will adapt to lights and noise quite quickly. Take pictures and enjoy them. According to company founder and CEO Leigh McFarlane, the move builds on her successful relationship, established two years ago, with the major grocery retailer. More than this, though, she says the venture has been a virtuous marriage of local craftsmanship and business savvy.

It is a joy to work with creative folks and I am incredibly grateful for their care in making what is now such a key part of our brand. Sherbrooke Village is truly a partner in our soap story. With a special focus on the Eastern Shore, we are very pleased to have developed this partnership with The Soap Company of Nova Scotia. I thought I could do the routering myself to make grooves for them fit together. That was far beyond my capabilities and I turned to the woodworking shop for help.

They have been an increasingly important part of the team since then. This led to the current display that is This seven-shelf display provides plenty of room to effectively display the 34 products currently listed at Sobeys. The full collection of products can be found in most stores on the beautiful red pine displays made by the talented craftsmen at historic Sherbrooke Village. In a news release issued Feb. In a similar situation, other agriculture and seafood companies have turned to foreign workers, an option that, due to COVID travel restrictions implemented by the federal government last week, is less tenable.

Canso Seafoods only employs local workers. Parent company Louisbourg Seafoods Ltd. Selon M. Denis Villeneuve, Initiative de journalisme local, Le Quotidien. Halman told The Journal last week Feb. The last couple of days has clearly demonstrated that. Why is this information posted and no advertisement or notice given to the public? I send my kids to school. The summary reports consist of a chart listing each school in the regional centre for education and a brief response to each of the following categories: System Type Active or Passive , Inspection completed by Sept 8, Yes or No , Maintenance Complete?

Yes or No. The Journal asked the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development via email why there was no publicity surrounding the release of the summary reports, how and where the full reports could be accessed, and for an accounting of the federal monies spent on ventilation. The response to these questions, via email from Violet MacLeod, a communications advisor for the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, did not answer any of these questions.

Ventilation system checks have been done at each and every school before students returned in the fall. Systems were checked, repaired as needed and confirmed to be in good working order; windows are able to open and systems are working as designed. The Journal also asked the SRCE why it did not publicize the release of the ventilation reporting summary.

In an email response Tuesday Feb. They include the SRCE website srce. It was not posted on SRCE twitter nor emailed to parents and guardians. A favourite route for the couple is Highway He questions whether educating the offenders of the harm being done to the environment — as well as the great harm to the beauty of the local countryside — would create change in behaviour. McInnis and his spouse are encouraging residents to address this as a public issue by making littering a topic of discussion, pushing the issue on social media and any other method of communication.

Family Day is right around the corner, and even with shutdowns and restrictions, there are still a number of virtual and outdoor family activities to participate in. Bruce Power is lending a hand to those wishing to celebrate the Family Day weekend, by hosting a family-fun photo contest, while also donating 1, flying carpet snow sleds to children across Grey, Bruce and Huron counties. All ages are invited to share their photos of fun activities and follow and tag Bruce Power on Instagram brucepowerngs.

There are chances to win prizes, including an iPad, a pizza night, family games and more. Bruce Power reminds the public to adhere to public health measures while enjoying the day and only photos that demonstrate these measures will be entered into the prize draw. Activities could include building snow sculptures, blanket forts, tobogganing, enjoying a game night, skating on an outdoor rink.

Winners will be randomly selected and will be contacted directly through Instagram. Those who do not have an Instagram account can email info brucepower. Sabba, who holds more than world records, will provide a demonstration and provide his tips for breaking records. The show also includes a number of challenges family members can try at home, including domino stacking, balancing pencils and hitting a target with a paper airplane.

Make sure to make your post public so it can be viewed by the Museum, and the best records will win prizes. Posting may begin on Feb. Winners will be announced on the Museum Facebook page on Feb. The Township of Huron-Kinloss is inviting everyone to bundle up and enjoy the wintry weather, with a variety of safe, outdoor activities.

Activities include the Front Yard Snow Sculpture contest. The rinks will be judged based on creativity, size and how it shows community spirit. A prize pack, donated by the Lucknow Lancers and Ripley Wolves is up for grabs for the winners. Finally, the outdoor scavenger hunt is a great activity for the entire family. Find the list of items to be hunted on the www. Family Day may look a little different this year, but there are still ample opportunities to enjoy the fun.

Simpson says. The earliest anticipated completion of the school is Simpson said the project is more expensive as the community wants a completely new school and not a retrofit of the existing one. Leonor will begin her two-year course at the boarding school this summer. She turns 16 at the end of October. Princess Leonor obtained admission to the school anonymously, taking several tests before being accepted, the royal household said.

The United World College Movement includes 18 schools around the world, the website says. The Associated Press. WARSAW, Poland — The presidents of Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia on Wednesday discussed mass vaccination as a means to bring their economies out of the coronavirus pandemic and backed nuclear energy as a way to curb climate change amid rising demand for energy. The four presidents said during a news conference that the Central European nations that make up the Visegrad Group are bringing needed diversity to the views of the European Union, which they joined in The group, also known as V4, is an informal body that promotes political and economic co-operation in the region.

The four leaders said the primary focus of their summit was fighting the pandemic and preventing global warming. The leaders urged faster deliveries from vaccine makers. Hungarian President Janos Ader said a relaxing of restrictions, especially in the hard-hit tourism industry, could be possible in May, if shot supplies allow for the acceleration of national vaccination programs. On the issue of climate change, Adler said all four nations want to develop nuclear energy.

Czech President Milos Zeman rejected the idea that the V4 was a mechanism to protect its members from some EU decisions and actions. The meeting will be held at Wawel Castle in Krakow. Looking for home gym organization ideas? In my case, I had to be extra organized because I keep my car inside my garage. For this reason, I decided to have the best of both worlds, a parking space and a garage gym. Home Gym Organization The number one step to take when organizing your home gym is to get rid of shit!

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As such, a core element of addiction is a loss of control over either the use of a substance or the engagement in a recurrent activity, despite awareness of negative consequences, which clearly interfere with long-term goals. Among the different processes assisting inhibitory control, an increasing focus has been drawn on mechanisms allowing to downregulate the excitability of the motor system 5.

Accordingly, a drastic suppression of motor activity has been reported when subjects are in the process of stopping an action 6 , 7 , but also during the preparation of motor acts 8 , 9. In particular, by measuring motor-evoked potentials MEPs elicited by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS over the primary motor cortex M1 , studies have monitored changes in the excitability of the corticospinal pathway during instructed-delay choice reaction time RT tasks 10 — Such tasks typically require participants to choose between responding with the left of the right hand according to an informative preparatory cue, and to withhold their response until the onset of an imperative signal.

When TMS pulses are applied between the cue and the imperative, the amplitude of MEPs probed in both hands are strongly reduced relative to resting conditions 15 — This phenomenon, referred to as preparatory suppression or inhibition , is thought to help prevent premature or inappropriate motor responses and, more generally, to ensure some sort of impulse control 8 , 18 — Consistent with this view, preparatory suppression appears to be deficient in individuals lacking inhibitory control, such as in addictive disorders.

We have recently shown that alcohol-dependent patients ADPs display a reduced MEP suppression during action preparation relative to matched healthy participants 9 , suggesting that a shortage of preparatory suppression might represent a newly identified feature of addictive disorders. Moreover, it might serve as an objective indicator of addiction severity, as the magnitude of this defect was linked to the subsequent propensity to relapse.

Chronic alcohol consumption has considerable neurotoxic effects, with the most pronounced damage reported in regions underpinning response inhibition, such as the frontal lobes and basal ganglia 21 — In addition, the degree of brain atrophy is related to the amount of alcohol previously consumed Hence, the deficit in preparatory suppression could be a consequence of brain damage induced by chronic alcohol exposure. Alternatively, a lack of inhibitory control might have been present before the pathology, predisposing individuals to early recreational experiences with alcohol, or facilitating their transition towards alcohol use disorder.

For example, offspring of ADPs, known to be at higher risk of developing alcohol use disorders 25 , display deficient inhibitory control 26 , In addition, impulsivity assessed during childhood or adolescence predicts substance use disorders later in life 28 , Inhibitory control is also impaired in behavioral, substance-free, addictions, implying that it might act as a vulnerability factor common to both substance and behavioral addictive disorders 3 , This matter has been especially addressed in gambling disorder GD , which shares considerable phenomenological parallels with substance addiction, including difficulties to control the urge to gamble despite awareness of its negative impact, unsuccessful attempts to cut back, or the emergence of craving in front of gambling-related cues In particular, an increasing body of literature has highlighted that patients suffering from GD GDPs have higher levels of impulsivity and lower response inhibition abilities than control subjects 32 — Moreover, several studies have reported an interesting association between those alterations and gambling severity 35 — The goal of the present study was to determine whether GDPs, who suffer from an addictive disorder but are preserved from the neurotoxic influence of drugs of abuse, display a lack of preparatory suppression in the motor system, similar to our findings in ADPs.

The study also involved the examination of other aspects of inhibitory control, including trait impulsivity, choice impulsivity, and response inhibition. Based on the hypothesis that a lack of preparatory suppression represents a common feature to both substance and behavioral addictions, we expected preparatory suppression to be less pronounced in GDPs than in healthy subjects.

Thirteen right-handed individuals with a diagnosis of GD were included in the study. Gambling dependence severity was assessed before the experiment using the South Oaks Gambling Scale SOGS ; a score higher than 5 was required to participate, indicating probable pathological gambling Based on this criterion, we selected 16 participants. All patients gambled at least more than once a week; the mean duration of gambling behavior was 6.

Exclusion criteria for both groups included major neurological or psychiatric disorder, any drug treatment that could influence performance or neural activity including benzodiazepine , and no history of substance use disorder except nicotine. Finally, in order to avoid any confounding effects due to a problematic consumption of alcohol, subjects from both groups had to complete the Alcohol Use Disorder Test AUDIT ; a score higher than 10 was considered as an exclusion criterion While the former is composed of three subscales, namely attentional, motor, and non-planning impulsivity, the latter allows to assess four different dimensions of impulsivity, referred to as urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking.

This tool consists of 27 dichotomous choices between smaller-immediate and larger-delayed monetary rewards to provide individual's delay discounting rate, i. Three magnitudes are assessed, resulting in separate discounting rates for small, medium, and large reward; an overall discounting rate was also obtained. K -values can range from 0 consistent selection of the delayed reward to 0.

Overall, the task consisted of 32 practice trials, followed by three experimental blocks of 96 trials. On each trial, participants were presented with an arrow go signal ; their task was to press the left arrow key of a keyboard with the left index finger when they saw a left arrow, and to press the right arrow key with the right index finger when they saw a right arrow. The SSD was initially set at ms, and was continuously adjusted via a standard adaptive tracking procedure i.

Importantly, participants were instructed to respond as accurately and as fast as possible maximal reaction time [RT] set at 1, ms , and not to delay their response to wait for the potential onset of a stop-signal. The stop-signal reaction time SSRT , which corresponds to the latency of the stop process, was estimated with the integration method with replacement of go omissions, i. In this task [adapted from 52 ], participants performed three different blocks, all of them involving a similar procedure.

Each trial started with the presentation of a fixation cross in the middle of the screen for 1, to 3, ms, followed by the onset of a target stimulus. This stimulus was an arrow inside a square displayed for ms on the left or the right side of the screen, before being masked by a gray cross-hatching square. The participant's task was to indicate the orientation of the arrow towards the left, the right, or upwards by pressing the corresponding key on a keyboard.

The first two blocks corresponded to control conditions, whereas the third one was the experimental condition. In the first block No cue [NC]; 40 trials , the sequence of events for each trial occurred as described above. In the second type of block Congruent cue [CC]; 40 trials , a visual cue a black square was presented for ms between the fixation cross and the target stimulus on the same side as the arrow.

Finally, the last block involved trials in which the visual cue was systematically displayed on the side opposite to the target stimulus Incongruent cue [IncC]; 80 trials. Given that the arrow appeared for only ms, participants had to inhibit the automatic response triggered by the IncC in order to correctly identify the orientation of the arrow. The critical measure was the anti-saccade cost, which was computed for both RTs and percentage of correct responses, by calculating the difference between the average scores obtained in the IncC block and the average scores recorded in the two other NC and CC blocks.

Participants performed an instructed-delay choice RT task, which was implemented with Matlab 7. Experimental procedure to measure preparatory suppression. A Rolling ball task. They had to withhold their response until the onset of an imperative signal i.

Once the bridge appeared, they were required to release their response as fast as possible. If they answered correctly, the ball then rolled over the bridge and reached the goal located on the other side. A feedback reflecting how fast and accurate subjects had been concluded each trial. B Time course of a trial. Each trial started with the preparatory cue random duration; 1,—1, ms followed by the imperative signal, which remained visible until the subject responded maximum duration of ms.

The feedback was presented at the end of each trial for ms. C TMS protocol. D Response device. E Time course of the experiment. After a training block, subjects performed two blocks of 60 trials. The sequence and timing of events are shown in Figure 1B. Each trial started with the presentation of a preparatory cue, consisting of a ball and a goal separated by a gap.

Participants had to prepare an abduction of the left index finger when the ball was displayed on the left side of the screen, and an abduction of the right index finger when it appeared on the right. Subjects were explicitly told to withhold their prepared response until the onset of an imperative signal i.

We purposely varied the duration of the delay period to decrease the subjects' tendency to respond prematurely i. For the same reason, each block involved a few trials in which the bridge did not appear i. In these trials, subjects were required not to respond and were penalized if they did so.

Once the bridge was on the screen, subjects had to respond as fast as possible to make the ball roll over it, within a maximum time of ms. The imperative screen disappeared once a response was detected or after ms and a feedback was presented for ms. By contrast, incorrect responses i. Finally, each trial ended up with a blank screen, lasting between 2, and 3, ms inter-trial interval. TMS was always delivered using a double-coil TMS method recently developed in our laboratory 17 , 56 — 58 , where both M1 are stimulated with a 1 ms inter-pulse interval, eliciting MEPs in both hands at a near simultaneous time Figure 1C.

Adding an interval between both pulses allows to avoid direct electromagnetic interference between the two coils, while keeping it short prevents transcallosal interactions to occur between motor areas. The MEPs obtained using this double-coil approach are comparable to those elicited using single-coil TMS, regardless of the pulse order or the intensity of stimulation 17 , 56 ; here, the first pulse was systematically applied over right M1.

Both pulses were delivered through small figure-of-eight coils wing internal diameter 35 mm , each connected to a stimulator delivering monophasic pulses. For each M1, the optimal coil position for eliciting MEPs in the contralateral FDI was identified and marked on a head cap placed on the participant's scalp to provide a reference mark throughout the experiment 8 , 18 , Across control subjects, the rMTs corresponded to Participants sat in front of the computer screen with forearms resting in a semi-flexed position and hands placed palms down on a home-made response device developed in our laboratory to detect any horizontal movement of the index fingers Figure 1D.

As illustrated in Figure 1E , the testing always began with a training block in order to familiarize the subjects with the task, followed by two experimental blocks of 60 trials. To establish a baseline measure of corticospinal excitability CSE , TMS pulses fell during the inter-trial interval, between 2, and 2, ms after the blank screen onset i. The remaining MEPs were classified according to the experimental condition within which they had been elicited.

Trials in which subjects made an error were also removed from the data set; the task was so easy that these trials remained rare and errors were not analyzed. For each condition, we excluded trials with peak-to-peak MEP amplitudes exceeding 2.

Following data cleaning, a mean of Demographic variables and current clinical status were compared in HCs and GDPs using independent sample t-tests. Importantly, as several works reported that using the natural log nlog transformation allows to approximately normalize the distribution of k -values 61 , 62 , analyses were performed on nlog k- values.

To compare motor inhibition in both groups, independent sample t-tests were performed on the critical measures specific to each task, i. To assess the presence of preparatory suppression in each sub-condition, one-sample t-tests Bonferroni-corrected were carried out to compare these values to i. In order to assess the potential link between the total number of DSM-V criteria and psychopathological variables as well as our different measures of inhibition in GDPs, partial Pearson's correlations were performed in these subjects, using the factor AGE as a covariate.

Accordingly, further analyses performed on the mean discounting rate estimated for the whole questionnaire i. Self-reported measures for choice impulsivity. Higher k-values reflect higher discounting rates. Please note that statistical analyses were performed on nlog k-values, although this figure depicts the raw data. Those results highlight the higher discount rate in GDPs relative to HCs, regardless of the magnitude of the delayed reward.

In the stop-signal task, two GDPs did not properly follow the instructions—i. In the remaining subjects, the mean response rate on stop trials equaled This overall slowness was also reflected in measures of the SSD Behavioral measures of motor inhibition. Hence, GDPs did not significantly display more difficulties than HCs to inhibit the initial reflexive saccade towards the incongruent visual cue. Measures of corticospinal excitability CSE at rest. Hence, HCs displayed a strong MEP suppression during action preparation, such as extensively shown in many other works 15 , 59 , Neural measures of preparatory suppression.

MEPs were larger in the selected relative to the non-selected condition only in the right FDI, regardless of the group. The RTs measured during the rolling ball task are shown in Figure 6. Reaction times RTs during the rolling ball task. Nonetheless, note that only the relationship between gambling severity and state anxiety remained after correction for multiple comparisons. Relationship with gambling severity. However, note that the correlation did not survive Bonferroni correction.

Such a decision implies that this substance-free gambling addiction shares many features with addictions to substances 64 — In this context, extensive work is being dedicated to understanding these similarities and to identifying vulnerability markers that may be common to all addictive disorders, with one particularly promising candidate being a lack of inhibitory control.

In the present study, we addressed this question by assessing preparatory suppression, a specific facet of inhibitory control, in a group of GDPs and in matched HCs. Contrary to our hypothesis, GDPs did not lack any preparatory suppression, though they had some deficits in other aspects of inhibitory control, such as a steeper delay discounting rate and a higher trait impulsivity than HCs.

Also, in line with some previous studies [ 57 , 59 ; but see also 17 ], this preparatory suppression was less prominent in the dominant hand, especially when it was selected for the subsequent movement, possibly reflecting a higher readiness of effectors from the dominant hand to initiate actions 57 , Interestingly, the same pattern of results was found in GDPs, suggesting that those subjects did not suffer from a deficit in preparatory suppression.

This difference might be the result of dissimilarities at the level of attention, vigilance, or arousal 2 , As such, one possibility is that GDPs are less motivated by a task in which the sole reward consisted in a feedback score, leading to a blunted resting excitability during the blocks.

Accordingly, fMRI studies have reported a diminished sensitivity towards small or non-monetary rewards in gamblers relative to control subjects 68 , Nevertheless, this plausible reduced vigilance in GDPs did not impact the level of preparatory suppression or even the performance in the rolling ball task.

While we did not observe an alteration of preparatory suppression in GDPs, there were some differences between both groups regarding some aspects of impulsivity, substantiating the presence of a deficit as expected in these patients. Although multiple theoretical models have been put forward 70 — 72 , impulsivity is commonly divided into two primary components, called choice impulsivity and rapid response impulsivity 73 , In line with the relative independence of those two types of impulsivity, GDPs were affected differently depending on the assessed component.

Our findings at the MCQ revealed that GDPs had significantly steeper discounting rates than HCs, highlighting a higher choice impulsivity in this group of patients, as shown previously 35 , 75 , This predisposition to prefer smaller-sooner rewards over larger-delayed ones was also supported by our measures of trait impulsivity. In this line, an association between scores on both subscales and discounting rates has been previously reported 61 , 76 , Altogether, this pattern of results is likely to contribute to the tendency of GDPs to favor immediate bets, despite the negative consequences of their gambling behavior.

This lack of group effect concerned not only behavioral motor inhibition, such as assessed by the stop-signal and the anti-saccade tasks, but also impulsivity trait, as scores at the motor subscale of the BIS questionnaire were not significantly different between both groups.

This result contrasts with recent meta-analyses suggesting higher rapid response impulsivity in subjects suffering from pathological gambling 30 , 78 , although some studies failed to identify a deficit 79 , Nonetheless, the present results need to be put into perspective in several ways. Hence, it might be that GDPs strategically slowed down in anticipation of the stop-signals to compensate for a potential inhibitory deficit, even though blocks without stop-signals would have been required to ascertain this hypothesis.

Besides, the slowness reported in GDPs might have prevented us from highlighting a lack of response inhibition. Indeed, while the tracking procedure was efficient, the SSD had to drastically increase to adapt to the slower responses of GDPs. Consequently, the number of trials was probably insufficient in the present study to allow the SSD to reach a relatively steady value at which the SSRT can be computed reliably.

Moreover, despite the overall lack of group effect in the anti-saccade task, we found an interesting positive correlation between the number of DSM-V criteria and the anti-saccade cost, which was quite variable in GDPs. In fact, and in line with previous works 35 , 36 , 81 , this association indicates that a deficit in rapid response impulsivity only concerned the most severe forms of pathological gambling, contrary to choice impulsivity, which was higher regardless of gambling severity.

Finally, it is worth noting that GDPs tended to score higher at the motor subscale of the BIS questionnaire, and that the lack of significant difference is likely to result from our small sample size. The current findings in GDPs contrast considerably with our prior observations in alcohol-dependent patients ADPs , which revealed a major lack of preparatory suppression, especially in the patients who relapsed during the year following the testing 9.

As GDPs are preserved from the neurotoxic influence of drugs of abuse, one straightforward interpretation of the discrepancy between both studies is that the lack of preparatory suppression observed in ADPs arises as a consequence of chronic alcohol consumption. Accordingly, it has been shown that the lateral prefrontal cortex—i.

Hence, it is plausible that this prefrontal source of preparatory suppression is specifically reduced in ADPs after years of alcohol abuse. Future studies, combing structural magnetic resonance imaging to quantify the brain damage and TMS to assess preparatory suppression in ADPs, are required to conclude on this point. Moreover, it would be interesting to investigate whether the lack of preparatory suppression extends to other substance use disorders.

Yet, it is noteworthy that structural and functional prefrontal alterations still exist in GDPs 84 — 88 , even in the absence of any substance use disorder comorbidity In particular, an increasing literature has led to consider the neuromodulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, using high-frequency repetitive TMS, as a potential treatment for GD 66 , with encouraging results in terms of craving reduction 90 — 92 , but not regarding inhibitory control That being said, the absence of deficit in preparatory suppression reported in GDPs makes it an unlikely common vulnerability marker of whether one is going to develop an addiction or not.

The present finding that preparatory suppression was comparable in GDPs and HCs should be interpreted with caution and requires further evidences as the current study suffer from several limitations. First, GDPs represent a highly heterogeneous group, characterized by different impairments depending on the form of gambling in which they engage 32 , Although impulsivity is an important ethiological factor for GD, the recognized pathway model of Blaszczynski and Nower 95 posits that it represents only one of the three routes than can lead to pathological gambling.

Hence, it is likely that our results reflect the average of different GD profiles, and that our findings would have been more similar to those observed in ADPs if we had only included GDPs from the impulsivity pathway. Second, the power of our study is rather low given our small sample sizes. Yet, this is the best we could do in view of the real challenge of recruiting patients suffering of GD only.

Indeed, many GDPs show high extent of comorbidity with alcohol and substance use disorders 96 , preventing them from participating in experiments aiming at assessing the neuropsychological profile exclusively associated with GD. Finally, our sample was entirely male. Although this is consistent with gender biases in the GD population 30 , 76 , 94 , this limits the generalizability of our findings to females.

In summary, although we found some alterations in several aspects of inhibitory control in the sample of GDPs tested in the current study, preparatory suppression was not deficient in these patients. This finding contrasts with prior observations reported in subjects suffering from an alcohol use disorder, suggesting that a lack of preparatory suppression does not represent a common feature shared by behavioral and substance-related addictions.

Critically, future studies would gain from taking into account the large heterogeneity in GDP profiles and possibly focus on patients that are part of the impulsivity pathway. CQ and JG: performed the experiments. CQ and JG: analyzed data. CQ and JD: wrote the article. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychiatry v. Front Psychiatry. Published online Jun Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Addictive Disorders, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry. Received Mar 12; Accepted Jun The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Data Availability Statement The datasets generated for this study are available on request to the corresponding author. Abstract A lack of inhibitory control appears to contribute to the development and maintenance of addictive disorders.

Keywords: gambling disorder, addiction, inhibitory control, impulsivity, transcranial magnetic stimulation, motor system, action preparation. Introduction Self-regulation is essential to behave in a goal-directed manner. Materials and Methods Participants Thirteen right-handed individuals with a diagnosis of GD were included in the study.

Anti-Saccade Task In this task [adapted from 52 ], participants performed three different blocks, all of them involving a similar procedure. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Experimental Design Participants sat in front of the computer screen with forearms resting in a semi-flexed position and hands placed palms down on a home-made response device developed in our laboratory to detect any horizontal movement of the index fingers Figure 1D.

Behavioral Measures of Motor Inhibition To compare motor inhibition in both groups, independent sample t-tests were performed on the critical measures specific to each task, i. Exploratory Analyses on the Relationships With Gambling Severity In order to assess the potential link between the total number of DSM-V criteria and psychopathological variables as well as our different measures of inhibition in GDPs, partial Pearson's correlations were performed in these subjects, using the factor AGE as a covariate.

NS, non-significant. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Trevor was also a Local Councilor in his locality, Balzan. Francisco Del Real is a Mexican lawyer with ten years of experience in Corporate Law and Regulatory Compliance, focused on the gaming, sports and entertainment industry.

He has collaborated in the drafting of several academic articles and also as speaker in the most relevant events of gaming law. Gordon Dickie has worked with the Seminole Tribe of Florida as Executive Director of the Gaming Commission since , where he currently oversees a staff of surveillance technicians, commission officers, gaming clerks, and has an executive team made up of 10 managers and supervisors.

His experience in the gaming industry though goes back all the way to where he was an agent with the Nevada Gaming Control Board. He has been on numerous gaming regulator panels, and has been a guest speaker at numerous trade shows and social events. He has also taught the California DOJ Gaming agents about slot fraud and how to conduct gaming investigations. Needless to say, Gordon Dickie has had an impressive career spanning over thirty years and his experience gives him a unique perspective on many different regulatory issues and practices.

French qualified advocate. She graduated in new technology law in France and started her career in when she joined the legal department of Unibet now Kindred Group Plc in London. Latterly she qualified as a certified anti-money laundering specialist CAMS. In the intervening years she has gained legal experience in France, UK, Brazil and Curacao both as in-house counsel and in private practice.

Her expertise in the online gambling industry covers both the B2C and B2B markets. He advises on all aspects of gaming law, in particular online gambling, social gaming and e-sports. His expertise covers licensing regimes, regulatory issues as well as advertising and provision of B2B services for gambling industry such as payment services, etc.

As an expert on Polish gambling law, Piotr frequently comments on case law developments for gambling compliance and speaks at events such as World Gambling Briefing or ICE Totally Gaming. In , as the Polish expert he participated in the research conducted by Simon Planzer at Cambridge Health Alliance together with Harvard Medical School and Harvard Law School, investigating associations between European gambling regulations and the actual gambling behavior of players.

In , he represented the two largest European online gambling industry organizations in complaint proceedings against Poland to the European Commission for violation of the EU law by Polish gambling regulations, which resulted in the European Commission launching proceedings concerning violation of the EU law by Poland at the end of , which terminated only in January after a number of changes to the Polish gambling regulations were introduced. He is a legal expert to the Polish Chamber of Commerce.

Louis and Jefferson City, Missouri. This firm has a civil practice with an emphasis in government regulatory law, political law, and compliance matters. Ellinger has actively engaged in the representation of gaming clients since Ellinger regularly speaks and moderates at international gaming conferences on emerging gaming issues. He has extensive experience in regulatory matters regarding financial transactions as well as litigation experience representing gaming clients in regulatory actions and in the state and federal courts in Missouri.

Chris is a commercial and regulatory lawyer, concentrating on providing UK regulatory and compliance advice to various stakeholders in the online gambling and gaming industries. Chris also regularly advises businesses looking to expand into new markets, and has particular expertise in helping businesses understand the legal and regulatory implications associated with operating in regulated and unregulated markets.

He has held various senior executive positions both within the private and the public sector. Prior to joining the MGA, Heathcliff spent the largest part of his career in the telecoms industry, specifically with Vodafone Malta, where he occupied various managerial positions. Filippo has over 20 years of experience, more than 10 of those in the gaming test lab and supplier industries and has a vast knowledge of remote iGaming and land-based gaming regulations. During his career, Filippo has been pioneering the use of cutting-edge networked technologies within the gambling industry, working with some of the leading casino operators around the world.

He has helped to set up one of the largest Italian concessionaires, assisted regulators in Europe and Latin America to formulate local technical requirements, and assisted with regulatory certification for many International land-based and on-line gaming suppliers and operators. In addition to advising a range of gaming companies on regulatory, compliance, strategic and commercial matters, Dr.

Finkel assisted the Malta Gaming Authority in a complete redesign of the regulatory framework for gaming in Malta, both in land-based and remove verticals. She is a member of the International Masters of Gaming Law since and lectures gaming law at the University of Malta. Prior to his admission to the bar in Amsterdam, he worked as a general counsel for a gaming company in Amsterdam and New York.

He is a frequent speaker at key conferences and industry events and publishes regularly. Andreas Glarner supports internationally oriented technology companies in all questions of digitization. As a founding partner of the Blockchain Fintech team of MME Legal Tax Compliance, he has broad experience in the implementation of blockchain-based projects, particularly with regard to technology, IPR, compliance, financing and governance.

Andreas Glarner is the author of various publications and a regular speaker in his fields of activity. Nina has in-depth industry knowledge, which forms the basis of her advice to leading national and international media clients, e. Nina has wide experience advising on cases concerning social media, sports rights, e-commerce, television formats, advertising, publisher agreements, telecommunication and computer games. Through the years, she has been involved in a variety of high-profile cases concerning the media and entertainment industry, and she has many years' experience negotiating with administrative organizations.

In addition, Nina has comprehensive experience advising on Danish gaming legislation. Together with a team of committed lawyers, she advises international online game operators and platform providers on all aspects of Danish gaming legislation, including the complicated license procedure, compliance issues, contract formation and regulatory issues in connection with international transactions.

Nina regularly speaks at national and international conferences and has authored articles in magazines and books. She is also a member of the Committee for Media Industries under the Confederation of Danish Industry and participates in working groups under the Danish Gambling Authority and the Consumer Ombudsman regarding matters pertaining to the online gaming industry. Alan also heads up our Betting and Gaming Group.

As the former director of tax with Paddy Power Betfair Plc, Alan has significant first-hand experience of the regulatory and taxation aspects of the betting and gaming sector. Alan also works on the tax aspects of mergers and acquisitions, reorganizations, restructurings, migrations, capital markets, financial products and banking. He also advises both domestic and international clients on the tax implications of setting up operations in Ireland.

Prior to founding Table Trac in he worked for a Minneapolis-based electronics and software company. He is one of the Past Presidents of the International Masters of Gaming Law and and the group leader of the gaming law practice group of his law firm. Hofmann acts regularly as speaker or moderator in international gaming law conferences domestic and abroad.

During this time he has firsthand experience of regulation across Europe and now has a deep understanding of regulation and the on-line gaming environment. He was also seconded to HM Treasury where he spent a year in the defense spending team analyzing and advising to cabinet level on maritime procurement. Unusually for a regulatory position Ian is not a lawyer! He has a degree in Engineering and an MBA. Ishihara is providing advice concerning the Japanese Integrated Resort and other gaming regulations to various gaming companies, casino operators, equipment manufacturers, foreign law firms, and state agencies.

He heads up the specialist Gaming Law Group which advises land based casinos, suppliers to the sector, internet gaming operators and trade associations, many of whom were attracted to Ireland by a favorable tax and business regime. Steve Ketteley is a partner at Wiggin, a leading firm in the media, entertainment and gaming spaces.

He is based in London. By background, Stephen is a commercial, regulatory and technology lawyer and concentrates on advising clients on all operational and regulatory aspects of their businesses, with a particular expertise in the infrastructure that underpins the on-line gambling industry.

He acts for operators and suppliers alike by drafting, negotiating and advising on matters such as intellectual property, software licensing and development, white-label supply agreements and affiliate arrangements and advises on the regulatory aspects of corporate transactions and the corresponding issues affecting investors, lenders and intermediaries. Jeremy Kleiman focuses his practice on gaming regulatory and business law, representing casino operators, gaming equipment suppliers, technology providers and financial institutions involved in the gaming and lottery industries.

He specializes in gaming-related corporate, regulatory, licensing and compliance matters, with an emphasis on the online and mobile gaming industry. He advised financial institutions, gaming equipment manufacturers, lottery providers and casino operators on all matter related to licensing, compliance and other regulatory matters. He served as worldwide lead regulatory counsel for a European lottery company in what was, at the time, the largest acquisition of a publicly traded gaming and lottery provider.

Lau Kok Keng has been in practice in Singapore since His team handles advisory, regulatory, transactional and disputes work relating to gambling and the industry. Since , Kok Keng has been actively involved in representing and advising clients in the gambling industry. His practice is arguably the most experienced and extensive gambling law practice in Singapore and in the region. Alfredo Lazcano is chairman of Lazcano Samano, S.

On a regular basis, he contributes as speaker on the main international events, as well as article contributor for the top gaming publications. His academic work in those fields usually focuses in regulatory improvement, combat against illegal operations, responsible gaming, protection of vulnerable individuals, as well as best practices and technical standards.

He is authorized to practice law in Mexico, at the federal and state levels. For over 25 years, he has served as senior counsel on several complex gaming law matters including advising on Requests for Proposals from governments to operate commercial and charitable casinos and advising applicants who seek registration with the gaming regulatory authorities throughout Canada. He regularly represents and counsels gaming equipment suppliers, institutional investors, governments, racetracks, casinos, First Nations and pari-mutuel operators in all aspects of gaming law from both a land based and internet perspective.

He has presented numerous papers on the various aspects of gaming law at international legal conferences and his gaming law articles have been published on a global basis including the Canadian chapter of the Internet Gaming Report. Michael has earned a global reputation for the strength and substance of his practice. John K. Maloney is the founder of the Law Offices of John K. Maloney with offices in Las Vegas and Sacramento. Maloney specializes in the area of gaming regulatory law and assists gaming clients in domestic and international markets.

The work includes representation of gaming vendors, to include gaming manufactures and distributors in such markets. Maloney has more than 30 years in the gaming field and spent 8 years with the State of Nevada Gaming Control Board in the Investigations Division and four years with the Casino Control Division in Queensland, Australia. This work involved complex forensic accounting investigations of large multinational companies and interactions with law enforcement and regulatory bodies worldwide.

Maloney is a founding member of the International Masters of Gaming Law. Quirino Mancini is a partner at Tonucci, a top ten Italian general practice firm with offices in Rome, Milan, Brescia, Padua and Florence as well one of the leading Western firms in the key Eastern European markets such as Romania, Serbia and Albania.

Quirino has a vast experience and a solid as well as long-established professional background in the sports, entertainment, media, and e-commerce fields. He also advises market analysts, investment houses and venture capital funds involved in the Italian gaming business. He also offers a bespoke match-making service aimed at devising the most sensible Italian business strategies and introducing foreign companies planning to enter the Italian market to suitable local businesses for purposes of joint venture, acquisition or commercial deals.

Quirino is a regular speaker at the most important European and international gaming conferences and sits in the editorial board of various gaming and sports publications. Awarded Top Rank Band 1 status by Chambers Global as the leading lawyer in Italy in the gaming and gambling field for six consecutive years He is a co-founder and editor of www.

Mike's professional peers have recognized him Chamber's U. He has authored more than fifty articles and book chapters and speaks frequently on Indian law and gaming matters. His practice focuses primarily in the areas of gaming, tribal affairs, administrative and corporate law. He is also involved with gaming bankruptcy matters. He is also a frequent speaker on gaming issues at the State Bar of Nevada and the American Bar Association continuing legal education seminars.

Keith C. M degree at the University of Michigan Law School. At Drake University, Professor Miller teaches and writes in the areas of gaming law, torts, and products liability, and his scholarship includes articles and treatises on torts, products liability, and gaming law topics. The book, published by Carolina Academic Press, is used both in law schools and other departments of universities. He is the only Brazilian qualified lawyer to have been ranked in four different categories by Chambers and Partners and is also a published author and speaker at both Brazilian and international conferences in many areas of law including gaming law , the last being the IMGL Masterclass at ICE Donna provides compliance, regulatory, corporate and transaction services to clients in Illinois and throughout the United States in highly regulated industries such as gaming, medical cannabis, liquor, sweepstakes and contests.

She also represents clients in commercial and regulatory disputes involving competitors. Donna regularly represents casinos, video gaming terminal operators, manufacturers and distributors, game developers and other companies involved in the gaming industry in Illinois and nationwide. This first-hand knowledge enables Donna to provide extensive insight and counsel to companies in the gaming industry in Illinois regarding licensing, compliance, investigations and commercial disputes.

Additionally, she advocates for clients before agency boards and commissions, litigates compliance issues in administrative and disciplinary hearings, and negotiates settlements. This includes working with clients to secure cultivation licenses from the Illinois Department of Agriculture and dispensary licenses from the Illinois Department of Professional Regulation. In addition to helping them comply with regulations, Donna assists growers and dispensaries with general business matters, shareholder agreements and operational plans.

For banking clients, she provides counsel regarding U. Department of Treasury issues related to medical cannabis. Donna has sat on the board of directors of two publically traded companies. She participates as a speaker in numerous gaming conferences each year. A French Advocate and English Solicitor, Diane started her career in Singapore in and has worked for more than seven years in South-East Asia, before coming back to practice and create her own firm in France in Diane specializes in telecommunications, technology and other regulated industries, such as gambling.

More specifically, she dedicated herself to corporate, technology and telecom matters and, in particular, to complex issues requiring the co-ordination of these three areas of law. Her experience in the telecommunications and technology including new services, such as gambling online sectors has earned her the reputation of an expert. It has been particularly active on the IT front of late, and has built up notable expertise in the gambling sector.

Recent work highlights include acting for gambling operator on its agreements with sports federations and sports events organizers relating to online sport betting. Sources say: "Brilliant TMT lawyers. Jamie advises extensively on all aspects of Australian and international gambling regulatory issues. He acts for gambling industry organizations, gaming machine suppliers, testing agencies, bookmakers, poker industry participants e.

Many of the international organizations that he has advised have subsequently established successful businesses in Australia. Jamie first became involved in the gambling area over 15 years ago in connection with the establishment of Sydney's casino and advising on the then new internet gaming sector. Since that time, he has given presentations on gambling issues throughout the world and has advised on, and been involved actively in, most material recent Australian gambling industry developments.

He has 20 years experience advising on UK and international gambling issues, specialising in licensing, regulatory, compliance, corporate and general commercial matters. Nick is the Editor of IMGL's European Gaming Lawyer magazine, a contributor to various legal and trade journals, and a regular speaker at international gaming conferences. Simon frequently speaks at key international gaming conferences and writes extensively on gaming matters. Michael Pollock oversees a broad portfolio of Spectrum services, including policy and impact studies for country, state and local governments, and financial and market studies for private-sector clients.

Pollock — a pioneer in the study of the economic impacts of gaming -- is the author of the award-winning book Hostage to Fortune: Atlantic City and Casino Gambling, published by the Center for Analysis of Public Issues in Princeton.

The book examines the impact of casinos on Atlantic City and New Jersey. Pollock began analyzing the casino industry in and served as spokesman for the New Jersey Casino Control Commission from through He was a close advisor to the chairman, and oversaw the Office of Legislative Liaison. During this period of rapid deregulation, his charge was to maintain public confidence in the integrity of the regulatory system. He has also testified before numerous legislative committees throughout the United States.

Pollock has won 20 journalism awards, and is the former editorial page editor of The Press of Atlantic City. Adam is a regular speaker at international gambling conferences. He engages with policy-makers and advises company executives on governmental policies at local, state, national and EU levels as well as provide Playtech with further business opportunities. He began his career in IT, then worked in a variety of roles for private companies, focusing on B2B marketing.

His firm today advises the world leading operations, affiliates, platforms and governing bodies in Europe and Asia, and is considered a first point of contact for entrepreneurs searching for turnkey solutions in the online space. With over 15 years of experience from the private and public sector Morten is the Director of Education and Association Development in the International Masters of Gaming Law.

He worked 12 years as legal counsel for the Danish Gambling Authority and during his time as a regulator he drafted the Danish online gambling reform that allowed licensing of betting and online casino operators in Denmark. He moved to the private sector in and has since been involved in advising governments and industry operators about European regulatory affairs.

Furthermore does works in partnership with the Brussels based public affairs agency Instinctif and the London based law firm Harris Hagan. Morten is based in Copenhagen, Denmark. He has extensive experience in sports and gambling law, having previously worked at global law firm DLA Piper where his clients included U.

Having joined Genius Sports Group in , Tom has established himself as an expert voice on sports betting regulation, sports integrity and the commercialization of official sports data. He is a regular contributor to a number of leading sports industry publications and has recently appeared on the Bloomberg Technology channel and before the New York Senate Standing Committee on Racing, Gaming and Wagering to discuss the dangers posed by illegal betting markets and the importance of integrity in sport.

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His team handles advisory, regulatory, transactional and disputes work relating to gambling and the industry. Since , Kok Keng has been actively involved in representing and advising clients in the gambling industry. His practice is arguably the most experienced and extensive gambling law practice in Singapore and in the region. Alfredo Lazcano is chairman of Lazcano Samano, S.

On a regular basis, he contributes as speaker on the main international events, as well as article contributor for the top gaming publications. His academic work in those fields usually focuses in regulatory improvement, combat against illegal operations, responsible gaming, protection of vulnerable individuals, as well as best practices and technical standards.

He is authorized to practice law in Mexico, at the federal and state levels. For over 25 years, he has served as senior counsel on several complex gaming law matters including advising on Requests for Proposals from governments to operate commercial and charitable casinos and advising applicants who seek registration with the gaming regulatory authorities throughout Canada.

He regularly represents and counsels gaming equipment suppliers, institutional investors, governments, racetracks, casinos, First Nations and pari-mutuel operators in all aspects of gaming law from both a land based and internet perspective. He has presented numerous papers on the various aspects of gaming law at international legal conferences and his gaming law articles have been published on a global basis including the Canadian chapter of the Internet Gaming Report.

Michael has earned a global reputation for the strength and substance of his practice. John K. Maloney is the founder of the Law Offices of John K. Maloney with offices in Las Vegas and Sacramento. Maloney specializes in the area of gaming regulatory law and assists gaming clients in domestic and international markets. The work includes representation of gaming vendors, to include gaming manufactures and distributors in such markets. Maloney has more than 30 years in the gaming field and spent 8 years with the State of Nevada Gaming Control Board in the Investigations Division and four years with the Casino Control Division in Queensland, Australia.

This work involved complex forensic accounting investigations of large multinational companies and interactions with law enforcement and regulatory bodies worldwide. Maloney is a founding member of the International Masters of Gaming Law. Quirino Mancini is a partner at Tonucci, a top ten Italian general practice firm with offices in Rome, Milan, Brescia, Padua and Florence as well one of the leading Western firms in the key Eastern European markets such as Romania, Serbia and Albania.

Quirino has a vast experience and a solid as well as long-established professional background in the sports, entertainment, media, and e-commerce fields. He also advises market analysts, investment houses and venture capital funds involved in the Italian gaming business.

He also offers a bespoke match-making service aimed at devising the most sensible Italian business strategies and introducing foreign companies planning to enter the Italian market to suitable local businesses for purposes of joint venture, acquisition or commercial deals. Quirino is a regular speaker at the most important European and international gaming conferences and sits in the editorial board of various gaming and sports publications.

Awarded Top Rank Band 1 status by Chambers Global as the leading lawyer in Italy in the gaming and gambling field for six consecutive years He is a co-founder and editor of www. Mike's professional peers have recognized him Chamber's U. He has authored more than fifty articles and book chapters and speaks frequently on Indian law and gaming matters.

His practice focuses primarily in the areas of gaming, tribal affairs, administrative and corporate law. He is also involved with gaming bankruptcy matters. He is also a frequent speaker on gaming issues at the State Bar of Nevada and the American Bar Association continuing legal education seminars. Keith C. M degree at the University of Michigan Law School.

At Drake University, Professor Miller teaches and writes in the areas of gaming law, torts, and products liability, and his scholarship includes articles and treatises on torts, products liability, and gaming law topics. The book, published by Carolina Academic Press, is used both in law schools and other departments of universities. He is the only Brazilian qualified lawyer to have been ranked in four different categories by Chambers and Partners and is also a published author and speaker at both Brazilian and international conferences in many areas of law including gaming law , the last being the IMGL Masterclass at ICE Donna provides compliance, regulatory, corporate and transaction services to clients in Illinois and throughout the United States in highly regulated industries such as gaming, medical cannabis, liquor, sweepstakes and contests.

She also represents clients in commercial and regulatory disputes involving competitors. Donna regularly represents casinos, video gaming terminal operators, manufacturers and distributors, game developers and other companies involved in the gaming industry in Illinois and nationwide. This first-hand knowledge enables Donna to provide extensive insight and counsel to companies in the gaming industry in Illinois regarding licensing, compliance, investigations and commercial disputes.

Additionally, she advocates for clients before agency boards and commissions, litigates compliance issues in administrative and disciplinary hearings, and negotiates settlements. This includes working with clients to secure cultivation licenses from the Illinois Department of Agriculture and dispensary licenses from the Illinois Department of Professional Regulation.

In addition to helping them comply with regulations, Donna assists growers and dispensaries with general business matters, shareholder agreements and operational plans. For banking clients, she provides counsel regarding U. Department of Treasury issues related to medical cannabis. Donna has sat on the board of directors of two publically traded companies.

She participates as a speaker in numerous gaming conferences each year. A French Advocate and English Solicitor, Diane started her career in Singapore in and has worked for more than seven years in South-East Asia, before coming back to practice and create her own firm in France in Diane specializes in telecommunications, technology and other regulated industries, such as gambling.

More specifically, she dedicated herself to corporate, technology and telecom matters and, in particular, to complex issues requiring the co-ordination of these three areas of law. Her experience in the telecommunications and technology including new services, such as gambling online sectors has earned her the reputation of an expert. It has been particularly active on the IT front of late, and has built up notable expertise in the gambling sector.

Recent work highlights include acting for gambling operator on its agreements with sports federations and sports events organizers relating to online sport betting. Sources say: "Brilliant TMT lawyers. Jamie advises extensively on all aspects of Australian and international gambling regulatory issues. He acts for gambling industry organizations, gaming machine suppliers, testing agencies, bookmakers, poker industry participants e.

Many of the international organizations that he has advised have subsequently established successful businesses in Australia. Jamie first became involved in the gambling area over 15 years ago in connection with the establishment of Sydney's casino and advising on the then new internet gaming sector. Since that time, he has given presentations on gambling issues throughout the world and has advised on, and been involved actively in, most material recent Australian gambling industry developments.

He has 20 years experience advising on UK and international gambling issues, specialising in licensing, regulatory, compliance, corporate and general commercial matters. Nick is the Editor of IMGL's European Gaming Lawyer magazine, a contributor to various legal and trade journals, and a regular speaker at international gaming conferences. Simon frequently speaks at key international gaming conferences and writes extensively on gaming matters.

Michael Pollock oversees a broad portfolio of Spectrum services, including policy and impact studies for country, state and local governments, and financial and market studies for private-sector clients. Pollock — a pioneer in the study of the economic impacts of gaming -- is the author of the award-winning book Hostage to Fortune: Atlantic City and Casino Gambling, published by the Center for Analysis of Public Issues in Princeton.

The book examines the impact of casinos on Atlantic City and New Jersey. Pollock began analyzing the casino industry in and served as spokesman for the New Jersey Casino Control Commission from through He was a close advisor to the chairman, and oversaw the Office of Legislative Liaison.

During this period of rapid deregulation, his charge was to maintain public confidence in the integrity of the regulatory system. He has also testified before numerous legislative committees throughout the United States. Pollock has won 20 journalism awards, and is the former editorial page editor of The Press of Atlantic City. Adam is a regular speaker at international gambling conferences. He engages with policy-makers and advises company executives on governmental policies at local, state, national and EU levels as well as provide Playtech with further business opportunities.

He began his career in IT, then worked in a variety of roles for private companies, focusing on B2B marketing. His firm today advises the world leading operations, affiliates, platforms and governing bodies in Europe and Asia, and is considered a first point of contact for entrepreneurs searching for turnkey solutions in the online space.

With over 15 years of experience from the private and public sector Morten is the Director of Education and Association Development in the International Masters of Gaming Law. He worked 12 years as legal counsel for the Danish Gambling Authority and during his time as a regulator he drafted the Danish online gambling reform that allowed licensing of betting and online casino operators in Denmark. He moved to the private sector in and has since been involved in advising governments and industry operators about European regulatory affairs.

Furthermore does works in partnership with the Brussels based public affairs agency Instinctif and the London based law firm Harris Hagan. Morten is based in Copenhagen, Denmark. He has extensive experience in sports and gambling law, having previously worked at global law firm DLA Piper where his clients included U.

Having joined Genius Sports Group in , Tom has established himself as an expert voice on sports betting regulation, sports integrity and the commercialization of official sports data. He is a regular contributor to a number of leading sports industry publications and has recently appeared on the Bloomberg Technology channel and before the New York Senate Standing Committee on Racing, Gaming and Wagering to discuss the dangers posed by illegal betting markets and the importance of integrity in sport.

Hugo was granted a sabbatical leave on late He currently acts as an International Legal Consultant. He has published a few scientific articles concerning the money laundering crime in Macau, SAR, where he is currently working.

He is the co-author of a cutting-edge proposal of Law regarding corporate criminal liability in Macau, which is being currently analyzed by the Macau Government. Beware of what you wish! Sbordoni has an highly-qualified reputation in the Gaming and Betting industry in Italy, and abroad.

Sbordoni is a consultant to many Italian and foreign leading operators. In his multi-year experience he has played a substantial role in the introduction of Bingo in Italy, in the re-organization of the gambling licensing system, in the privatization of the instant and traditional Lotteries, in the marketing of new pool games and lottery networks in more than 40 foreign countries.

He is the author of the chapter on Italy in two editions of the Internet Gambling Report. Freedom and Law", published in May , by Poligrafico dello Stato. As a journalists Mr. Sbordoni cooperates with TS, the major trade publication on betting in Italy, with Jamma the first website on gaming in Italy , and with Atlante and Technet web newspapers specialized on Economy and IT. His areas of expertise are: government relations, gambling regulation, devising strategic commercial solutions within a regulated environment, IPR licensing, sport sponsorship, brand development and protection, mergers and acquisitions, international corporate and tax structuring, joint ventures, crowd funding and European Union law, especially in so far as the Internal Market is concerned.

He has also acted on the financing of corporate deals with underlying investments in real estate and the trade financing of businesses in the UK. He is also a lecturer in Gaming Law at the University of Malta.

Alla Serebrianskaia is a specialized lawyer in Gaming Law and expert in licensing procedures and public tenders. Alla joined ASENSI in August and she has been deeply involved both in the first and in the second Spanish licensing process, representing the interest of most of the major operators. Prior to this, she was an in-house lawyer working at Indra Sistemas S.

Previous coordination roles include heading the Intellectual Property, Media and Technology Romanian Practice of a global law firm, as well as acting as in-house counsel for a US media group, in CEE jurisdictions where the group was a market leader. She has been actively involved in the review and drafting of the Romanian gaming legal framework and has participated in the technical meetings of the Consultative Committee organized at the level of the National Gambling Office. She regularly contributes to industry dedicated publications as well as working groups seeking to improve the business and regulatory approaches in gaming, technology, media and communication fields.

Rolf graduated with a law degree from the University of Oslo in , specializing in intellectual property and international human rights. He has previously worked on land concessions and area planning at the Ministry of Agriculture and legislation and individual cases related to oil pollution in the North Sea at the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority. Between and he worked as a gaming regulator, first with the Ministry of Justice and Police, and from with the Ministry of Culture.

The Ministry is responsible for the regulation of all gaming in Norway except gaming connected to equestrian activities. He has also supervised the administration of Norsk Tipping, the Norwegian state-owned gaming company, as well as the Norwegian Gaming Authority. He was also a director on the board of the Gaming Regulators European Forum.

Britt has been actively representing gaming clients since Britt was local counsel for licensure in Mississippi for several manufacturers and distributors including, Konami, Shufflemaster, Interblock and Cadillac Jack. Britt has litigated numerous cases for clients in the industry in several states. It is the largest class action settlement in world history.

Britt is a founding member of IMGL and is a frequent speaker at gaming conferences. She also is a member of the International Association of Gaming Advisors. She is a frequent writer and speaker on Federal Indian law and gaming issues.

She focuses solely on gambling related issues. Having spent five years holding the position as in house head of the gambling division at Ladbrokes, she recognized the need when coming back into private practice in , of creating a legal service to support all the needs of gambling clients from regulatory issues, general commercial and corporate support including fund raising to structural and tax planning, and to provide this on a multi-jurisdictional basis.

She has also written legislation and regulations for offshore governments as well as drawing up industry codes of practice. Wiklund has been legal counsel for major online gaming operators for almost 10 years. He is also advising private operators in the Health Care-sector.

He has acted as counsel in proceedings before the European Courts in Luxemburg and has represented clients in the European Commission and the Swedish Competition Authority. He is acting for clients in a number of pending high profile monopoly EC law suits gaming, tax and alcohol against the Swedish government.

He has also acted for clients in two of the major infrastructural public procurements in Sweden; new communication system for the police, fire brigade etc RAKEL and traffic congestion charges for the City of Stockholm, as well as an arbitrator in telecom cases. Wiklund has published several articles and books in his field of practice. David has extensive experience in providing strategic, commercial and regulatory advice to clients in the gambling sectors. Chambers and Partners describes David as "unbelievably smart, practical and commercial" and "widely respected as one of the leaders in the market".

Subscribe now to receive notification of the newest issue of these publications by clicking on the links below. Subscribe to American Gaming Lawyer. Subscribe to Indian Gaming Lawyer. Designed by InVerve Marketing. Skip to main content. Ilkka Aalto-Setala Ilkka has worked over 20 years with antitrust matters. Sebastian Blohm Sebastian Blohm is a corporate affairs professional with substantial knowledge in the areas of public affairs, corporate communication, legal affairs and business development.

Tamsin Blow Tamsin Blow is a Partner in the Litigation and Arbitration Group, specializing in commercial, media and public law dispute resolution. William Bogot Bill represents clients before government agencies in highly regulated industries. Borg Dr. Juan Camilo Carrasco Juan Camilo Carrasco is a lawyer with extensive experience in corporate and financial law. Juan Camilo speaks Spanish, English.

Trevor de Giorgio Dr. Francisco Del Real Francisco Del Real is a Mexican lawyer with ten years of experience in Corporate Law and Regulatory Compliance, focused on the gaming, sports and entertainment industry. Gordon Dickie Gordon Dickie has worked with the Seminole Tribe of Florida as Executive Director of the Gaming Commission since , where he currently oversees a staff of surveillance technicians, commission officers, gaming clerks, and has an executive team made up of 10 managers and supervisors.

Chris Elliott Chris is a commercial and regulatory lawyer, concentrating on providing UK regulatory and compliance advice to various stakeholders in the online gambling and gaming industries. Filippo Ferri Filippo has over 20 years of experience, more than 10 of those in the gaming test lab and supplier industries and has a vast knowledge of remote iGaming and land-based gaming regulations. Olga Finkel Dr. Chad Hoehne Mr. Joerg Hoffman Dr. Hitoshi Ishihara Mr. Steve Ketteley Steve Ketteley is a partner at Wiggin, a leading firm in the media, entertainment and gaming spaces.

Jeremy Kleiman Jeremy Kleiman focuses his practice on gaming regulatory and business law, representing casino operators, gaming equipment suppliers, technology providers and financial institutions involved in the gaming and lottery industries. Over and above this, EU-licensed internet casinos will also be made subject to unrealistically high taxation of stakes compared to national monopoly operators.

In the opinion of legal experts, such unequal treatment is incompatible with both EU legislation and constitutional law. The German treaty has led to a number of court cases focusing on its validity, which is interpreted very differently by individual German courts. In January , the European Commission initiated infringement proceedings against Germany due to the fact that the treaty imposes inadmissible restrictions on the cross-border provision of services. The German authorities are nevertheless attempting to enforce the internet ban by means of injunctions and enforcement proceedings against bwin and other private operators.

The German Federal Supreme Court is expected to provide further clarification of the legal situation in the civil proceedings instituted against bwin International Ltd. Westlotto has applied for a cease and desist judgement against bwin International Ltd. The courts of first and second instance found against bwin International Ltd.

Despite initiatives in the European Council and the European Parliament, the regulatory environment for online gaming is not expected to be harmonized in the foreseeable future. Instead, the European Commission is endeavouring to enforce the rights to which private operators are entitled in accordance with the EC Treaty in particular, freedom of establishment and freedom of services.

The pursuit of these infringement proceedings has recently been delayed. Nevertheless, further clarification of the legal situation can be expected soon, in view of the numerous cases submitted by national courts and pending with the European Court of Justice ECJ.

There are currently 17 preliminary ruling procedures relating to national restrictions on cross-border gaming pending with the ECJ. On 14 October , the advocate-general submitted his final pleading in the Portuguese preliminary ruling procedure C , in which bwin is involved as a party to the initial proceedings.

In these proceedings, the ECJ set out to examine the admissibility of the Portuguese sports betting and lottery monopoly, and is expected to pass judgement in the first half of Thanks to the positive development of all product segments, bwin increased its gross gaming revenues betting stakes less customer winnings to EUR Gross gaming revenues less sales commissions, betting duties, licence fees and bonuses resulted in net gaming revenues rising by Opportunities offered by Web 2.

In the financial year , gross gaming revenues from the sports betting segment were up Sports betting turnover betting stakes rose by The range of sports bets now offered comprises nearly a hundred different sports, with around 3, live events. Thanks to an enhanced video quality in a larger format and the versatile betting interface, users are able to arrange their favourite events just as they like, giving them an even more intense live experience.

Over 1, pages of specifications and , lines of programming were necessary to create this interface, which is one of the three largest applications in the world in the Flash format. The growing popularity of live betting is progressively shifting the turnover ratio from conventional sports betting to live betting, as a result of which the structurally lower margin for live betting is reflected more and more in the overall margin. A sports betting margin of 8. In , bwin poker reported an increase in turnover fees charged for every poker hand played, or rake of After successfully obtaining a licence in the spring of , in the fourth quarter of bwin was one of the first providers to introduce real-money poker in Italy on its new P5 poker platform.

The platform has a completely modular and scalable structure with uncompromised stability. Maintenance work can be carried out during operation, which means that the platform can be operated around the clock. In the fourth quarter of , preparations were made to bundle the various poker labels into bwin poker. This will enable the poker segment to benefit from the strong bwin brand coupled with improved cost efficiency. The games segment reported a turnover betting stakes less customer winnings of EUR Based on a turnover of EUR In , the resulting revenues amounted to EUR As a result, bwin now offers the most comprehensive live video selection in the online gaming industry.

During the financial year , the Company developed services relating to the processing of payments Payment Services Providing , offering these services to group companies. The bwin Group subsequently plans to market these services to third parties. In this connection, Vincento Payment Solutions Ltd. Positive development of the customer base continued during , in terms of both active and new active real-money customers.

Particularly in the last quarter of the year under review, expectations were exceeded due to very successful reactivation measures. The number of active customers rose to 2. This was equivalent to an increase of The number of new active real-money customers rose by Due to the large number of new customers acquired, bwin reported a slight decline of 6.

In , operating expenses rose to EUR This increase of In some instances bwin also drew on the services of external providers and consultants for the development of its sports betting, poker and payment platforms. Due to the extended product range, expenses for services rendered were therefore up Personnel expenses were also up due to the growing number of employees compared to the previous year, from EUR This also included non-cash expenses in the amount of EUR At the reporting date of 31 December , the Company had 1, employees excluding freelance staff.

This represents an increase of Marketing expenses including bonuses of EUR Expenses for customer bonuses were up as a result of the European Football Championship and the greatly expanded customer loyalty programme, from EUR Consequently, the proportion of gross gaming revenues accounted for by customer bonuses rose from 7.

This was attributable largely to a rise in banking expenses due to the increased volume of turnover, and currency losses in the amount of EUR The latter were offset partially by currency gains presented under other operating income in the amount of EUR 9.

Non-cash expenses in the amount of EUR 3. The development of gaming revenues and operating expenses described above resulted in an increase in EBITDA earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, impairments and reversals of 2. Impairment-related expenses were up from EUR 9. Further details can be found in the information on impairments in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.

Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment and intangible assets in amounted to EUR Reversals fell from EUR Further details can be found in the information on corporate acquisitions in the notes to the consolidated financial statements. Cash and cash equivalents including short term securities in mEUR. A loss after tax of EUR Excluding the balance of impairments and reversals, the consolidated loss after tax was reduced from EUR 8. Assets, financial position and liquidity The total assets of the Company were reduced slightly in , by EUR Intangible assets totalled EUR This marked drop was due on the one hand to depreciation and amortization and on the other hand to impairments.

An increase of EUR Non-current liabilities totalled EUR 4. This marked decrease was attributable mainly to the payment of liabilities in connection with the acquisition of marketing rights to the German Soccer League. Cash flow from operating activities declined from EUR The cash outflow from investment activities increased from EUR These investment activities resulted mainly from the expansion of the server infrastructure and office equipment, and from the acquisition of rights to the German Soccer League.

Cash on hand and in banks as of 31 December of EUR Acquisitions, subsidiaries and at-equity consolidated companies Details of these can be found in the notes to the consolidated financial statements. General risks Apart from the risks specific to online gaming, legal and regulatory risks, the most significant risks to which the bwin Group is exposed are those of a general entrepreneurial nature.

Although providing poker and casino products entails comparatively little risk, quoting fair market odds for sporting events means bwin not only has to employ highly qualified staff, but also to implement appropriate processes and software solutions, most of which are fully automated. Amongst the measures designed to minimize the risks associated with betting operations are the registration of customers complete with name, address and date of birth, compulsory identification on first payout, and payment of winnings only by bank transfer or through internationally recognized payment providers, and finally the exclusion of any sportsmen, managers, referees, etc.

Other risks associated with gaming operations such as betting fraud e. Operational risks Operational risk is defined as the potential occurrence of losses due to unforeseeable events, interruption of business, inadequate controls or failure of controls or systems associated with staff, customer relations or technology, business assets, with other third parties or government agencies, or with project and other risks.

Financial instruments Details of these can be found in the notes to the consolidated financial statements. Regulatory risks The bwin Group currently operates in more than 25 countries, serving customers around the globe via gaming platforms like www. The operational business of the bwin Group is carried out largely on the basis of Gibraltarian sports betting and casino licences.

In addition to this, the companies of the bwin Group also hold other licences in Europe and beyond. General business risks General business risks are taken to mean a degree of uncertainty about the way business will develop due to changing circumstances, such as the market environment, customer behaviour, and technological progress. Principles of risk management The heads of the various departments of the Company are responsible for ensuring that employees observe guidelines, licence limits and regulations.

For example, predefined approval procedures and controls must be observed when making investments of a certain size. A wide variety of highly sophisticated, often automated software systems may. These facilitate the systematic analysis of all business processes with respect to the anticipated outcome, and the quantification of all the risks associated with them.

Trends are recognized at an early stage, and are incorporated in the decision-making process in real time in the form of strategic decisions. Professional human resources development and the recruitment of experts in online gaming and the IT sector have always been key factors behind the business success of bwin. The purposeful development of human resources in was continued into , though the first two quarters of were characterized by an extremely competitive labour market.

A comprehensive employee survey was carried out in with a view to ensuring the continued effective development of staff with due consideration for corporate and department objectives. An analysis based on questionnaires developed specifically for departments and the resulting workshops arranged by well-known consultants showed up strengths and areas for improvement. The measures derived from these analyses were successively implemented.

Thanks to EMERGE, bwin is proud to be the first online gaming company that is in a position to offer comprehensive, intradepartmental training and information in the field of gaming addiction prevention. As a result of the continued development of core products in the sports betting and poker sectors, the number of employees rose from 1, including 63 freelancers, most of them in customer service at the end of to 1, including 51 freelancers, most of them employed in customer service as of the reporting date of 31 December For further information on the Employee Stock Option Plan, please see the relevant information in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.

There is no separate report on environmental issues due to the lack of relevant circumstances. The share capital of bwin AG as of 31 December comprised 32,, ordinary shares, which are all traded on the Vienna Stock Exchange. All shares have the same rights and obligations. The Executive Board of bwin AG is not aware of any agreements between shareholders regarding limitations on voting rights or the assignment of shares.

The majority of the shares are in free float. All employees who are also shareholders of the Company exercise their voting rights personally. Please refer to the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further information on the authorization of the Executive Board of the Company to issue or buy back shares. In this case, the Executive Board members will receive full remuneration for the remaining term of their contracts until 31 December Under the provisions of the performance-based options granted to Executive Board members, it is stipulated that these will become non-forfeitable in the.

In this event, the members of the Executive Board will also be entitled to choose with a period of prior notice of three months from the announcement of the offer to receive all or parts of the options in cash. There were no significant events after the reporting date that must be reported here. These include, in particular, the new P5 poker platform and numerous innovations in the live betting segment.

Over and above this, bwin laid the groundwork for a horizontal product expansion in the field of payment processing and concluded preparations for the issue of a prepaid card, a unique service in the gaming industry, and also prepared the ground internally to be able to handle payment transactions for third parties. The latest technologies are applied in customer and CRM service, as well as in the field of security.

In view of the very different gaming policies still pursued by the individual member states of the European Union, bwin is exceptionally well positioned, thanks to the modular structure of its platforms, to react quickly and flexibly to a wide range of legal scenarios. In combination with a strong brand, bwin is therefore ideally placed to exploit the considerable growth potential of the online gaming market.

Significant improvement in results expected in Following this phase of intensive investment, the Company has entered into a consolidation phase, in parallel with a cost-cutting programme during the year under review, aimed at enabling bwin to achieve a significantly improved result in Without endangering its growth potential, on the basis of its annualized cost structure in the second half of the Company will reduce other operating expenses by about EUR 20 million and marketing expenses by at least EUR 20 million in the year In addition to a reduction in brand-building expenses, the Company will also adapt its organizational structure, particularly in the area of IT and operations.

Furthermore, bwin will focus even more strongly on existing markets whilst at the same time pursuing a less aggressive expansion of its product pipeline. Projects that take more than a year to reach break-even will be postponed in favour of optimizing cash flow. Reinforcing quality management and innovation processes will ensure steady product development. This will eliminate. Furthermore, bundling the various poker labels into bwin Poker in the first quarter of will enable the poker segment to benefit from enhanced cost efficiency.

Depending on the profit for the year recognized in the individual financial statements of bwin AG and subject to the approval of the Annual General Meeting, management plans to pay shareholders a dividend for the first time for the financial year Disclaimer This management report contains statements relating to the future that were made on the basis of the current situation at the time of going to press. Although the Executive Board assumes that its forecasts are accurate, in the fast-moving online gaming business it is impossible to guarantee that these expectations will be realized.

However, as in the past, the Company aims to make all essential information available to its shareholders immediately and without restriction. Attributable to equity holders of the parent company. Income from release of negative goodwill resulting from initial consolidation. Payments from disposal of financial assets and other financial investments. Payments for acquisitions of financial assets and at-equity consolidated investments. The business activities of bwin Group include offering sports betting, casino and virtual games, and operating a multiplayer poker platform.

For this purpose, Vincento Payment Solutions Ltd. Wherever necessary, bwin Interactive Entertainment AG carries out central functions such as finance, marketing, IT, project management, international business development, human resources and corporate communications for the subsidiaries of bwin Group. It also provides numerous other services such as market research and customer data analysis. The operational business of the bwin Group is carried out primarily by bwin International Ltd.

Additionally, Ongame Network Ltd. Furthermore, bwin Group also holds licences in Austria, Italy, Spain via an associated company and Argentina. The consolidated financial statements are prepared in thousands of euros EUR Rounding differences may occur in amounts and percentages due to the use of automated accounting systems.

The adoption of standards and interpretations to be applied in the financial year did not have any impact on the consolidated financial statements. New standards and interpretations to be applied in the future. The following standards or revisions of or amendments to standards as well as interpretations were issued at the reporting date, but were not effective for the financial year The standards must be applied to financial years beginning on or after the effective date.

The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of the standards or revisions of or amendments to standards as well as interpretations on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures. The Company did not adopt these standards and interpretations early. The Company estimates that the adoption of IFRIC 12, which has not yet been endorsed by the EU, would not have had any impact on the consolidated financial statements for the financial year , nor will it have an impact on the consolidated financial statements upon adoption in the future.

In accordance with IFRS 3, subsidiaries are initially consolidated when the parent company actually assumes a controlling influence over the assets and operations of these companies. Any amount of the acquisition costs exceeding the fair value of the net assets acquired is recognized as goodwill.

Goodwill is not amortized, but tested for impairment annually. If goodwill is impaired, an impairment charge is recorded in net income. Intercompany revenues, expenses and profit and losses from intragroup transactions, as well as receivables due from and liabilities due to consolidated companies were eliminated. Associated companies over which the Company has a significant influence, but does not exercise control, and joint ventures are reported using the equity method. The bwin Group records its ongoing business transactions in foreign currencies at monthly average exchange rates.

At the reporting date, all monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currencies are translated into euros using the closing rate and any foreign currency gains and losses are recognized in profit or loss. We refer to our disclosures on the scope of consolidated financial statements for details on the functional currencies of the entities of bwin Group.

The euro is the functional currency of bwin AG. The financial statements are translated using the modified reporting date method, and any exchange differences are recorded directly in equity. The financial statements were translated at the following exchange rates:.

Apart from the parent company bwin AG, Vienna, the consolidated financial statements include the following companies in which bwin AG held a controlling interest as of 31 December reporting date of the subsidiaries is 31 December :. A fund of funds has also been included in the consolidated financial statements as it qualified as a special-purpose entity SPE in accordance with SIC 12 due to the degree of control exercised.

All assets included in this fund of funds are measured individually and shares held are reported as marketable securities, cash in cash and cash equivalents, and accrued interest and the shares of profit or loss in other receivables. In substance, the investments were acquired at their nominal value and were also included in the consolidated financial statements for the first time in Ongame Ltd.

Investments in the following companies are consolidated using the equity method:. As owner of the domain www. Pfennigwerth operates bwin e. The subsidiaries listed above are not consolidated, but are recorded at acquisition cost in the consolidated financial statements due to the fact that they are not material to the consolidated financial statements. The following investments in companies are presented as financial assets:.

On initial consolidation, negative goodwill amounting to EUR thousand was therefore recognized in the financial result. VV GmbH since An amount of EUR The amount of EUR Since bwin Group decided to cease its real-money activities on the US market subsequent to the passing of the Unlawful Internet Gambling and Enforcement Act , the Company recognized impairment charges related to considerable components of the acquired assets, in particular to the cash generating units poker and casinos units in America.

In , the Company concluded a contractual agreement with the former owners of bwin Games AB, who had sold Under this contractual agreement the former owners of bwin Games AB agreed to waive the unpaid part of the purchase price still due to them, representing the outstanding contingent purchase price liability plus interest.

At the same time, bwin agreed to waive the existing counterclaim by bwin Games AB. Should bwin or one of its group companies reenter the US market, the sellers who waived their share of the outstanding liability have been assured that they will receive a certain share of the net gaming revenues from this business for a period of up to five years. However, this payment will be limited to an amount of EUR 79, thousand, equivalent to the waived contingent purchase price liability plus calculated interest.

At all events, this assurance will lapse on 31 December Subsequent to the reduction in the acquisition cost of the Ongame Group following this agreement, the acquisition cost and accumulated impairment charges of goodwill related to the poker and casino CGUs in America, which had been written off entirely in the financial year , were adjusted accordingly in see notes 1b and The waived part of the contingent purchase price liability amounting to EUR 77, thousand including accrued interest and the counterclaim amounting to EUR 3, thousand were also derecognized through profit and loss in see notes 22 and This resulted in revenues from reversal of impairments amounting to EUR 68, thousand and interest income of EUR 6, thousand in The renegotiated contingent purchase price obligation was not recorded in the consolidated financial statements as of December 31, , since it was neither likely nor foreseeable that bwin would re-enter the US market.

In , the Company also concluded a contractual agreement with the rest of the former owners of bwin Games AB. Under this contractual agreement, these former owners of bwin Games AB agreed to waive the outstanding contingent purchase price liability plus interest on the same terms as the other group of former owners. This resulted revenues from reversal of impairments amounting to EUR 2, thousand and interest income of EUR thousand in Since the fact that it is neither likely nor foreseeable that bwin will re-enter the US market remains unchanged from , the renegotiated contingent purchase price obligation was not recorded in the consolidated financial statements as of 31 December The interest attributable to production costs is not capitalized.

In accordance with IAS 38, the cost of internally developed intangible assets is capitalized when its technical feasibility is assured, future economic benefits can be expected from such assets and their cost can be reliably measured. After all requirements are met, costs relating to the production and improvement of websites and the online gaming software used by the Group are capitalized.

Intangible assets with an indefinite useful life, such as brand names and goodwill, are not subject to scheduled amortization, but are tested for impairment annually, or when there are indications that their carrying amount is impaired. Impairments All property and equipment and intangible assets with a definite useful life are tested for impairment.

If there are indications of impairment, the recoverable amount of the assets in question is calculated. An impairment is recorded if the recoverable amount is below its carrying amount. Goodwill, intangible assets with an indefinite useful life and property and equipment not yet put into operation are tested for impairment, either annually, or when there are indications of an impairment to their carrying amount.

The carrying amount of the CGUs to which these assets are allocated is compared to their recoverable amount. Cash and cash equivalents bwin reports cash, sight deposits and fixed deposits with terms of up to three months as cash and cash equivalents. Financial assets and liabilities Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognized initially when the Company acquires contractual rights or enters into contractual obligations. All transactions are recorded at the settlement date.

They are derecognized when the Company is no longer in control of the contractual rights associated with such assets. This is normally the case when such assets are sold or any cash flows arising from such assets are directly transferred to an independent third party. These assets are recorded at cost when acquired, and subsequently measured at their fair values if a fair value can be reliably determined.

With the exception of impairment charges, changes in fair value are recorded directly in equity afs-reserve. The fair values correspond to the market price. If no fair values are available, the assets are recognized at acquisition cost less any impairment.

Interest is recorded using the effective interest method, dividends are recorded when the legal entitlement to payment arises. Inventories Inventories comprise commercial goods sold through online shops. Inventories are measured at the lower of acquisition or manufacturing cost and net realizable value, with costs of acquisition calculated using the first in, first out method.

The net realizable value is calculated on the basis of the estimated sales prices expected in the normal course of business development less any future costs of manufacturing, administrative costs or marketing costs. Receivables and other assets Receivables and other assets are classified as loans and receivables, and are carried at amortized cost or at the lower realizable value less individual allowances for doubtful accounts.

Financial liabilities Financial liabilities are classified as other financial liabilities, and are recorded at amortized cost. Interest expense is recognized in accordance with the effective interest method. Accounts payable Accounts payable are measured at amortized cost, which is equivalent to the repayment amount. Income taxes Deferred taxes are recognized when there are temporary differences between the values of the assets and liabilities in the balance sheet and their relevant tax bases.

Deferred tax assets are recognized only for loss carry-forwards to the extent that they are likely to be recovered in the foreseeable future. Share-based payments In accordance with IFRS 2, share-based payment transactions for goods or services received or purchased are recognized at their relevant fair values at the acquisition date.

Basically, depending on whether the transactions are settled using equity instruments or by cash payments, this results either in an increase in equity or in a liability. The expense incurred as a result of share-based payment transactions for services received settled by means of stock options is recognized over the service period of the share options. IFRS 2 was first applied in the financial year , as a result of which the only share-based payment transactions taken into account were those granted after 7 November and which were not yet exercisable at the time the standard became effective.

If the granting of the options is conditional upon satisfying specified market conditions performance options , these market conditions and the likelihood of their fulfillment are assessed at the time of the granting of the options and this assessment is taken into account when the fair value of the options is estimated.

Future modifications of such assessments are not taken into account. Modifications of the assessment with respect to vesting conditions length of employment are taken into account as they occur. Severance payment obligations Under legal regulations and individual employment contracts, all employees of the Austrian companies of bwin Group, who joined the Group before 31 December are entitled to a one-time severance payment upon termination or when reaching retirement age.

Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in the income statement as incurred. Due to changes in legal regulations, a defined contribution plan was introduced for staff employed with the Austrian subsidiaries after 31 December Contributions are paid monthly and recognized in the income statement.

Other provisions Other provisions are recorded whenever the Company has legal or actual obligations towards a third party as a result of a past event, and whenever it is likely that such obligations will result in cash outflows.

Such provisions are recorded in the amount considered appropriate according to best estimates at the time the consolidated financial statements are prepared. If an amount cannot be reasonably estimated, no provision is recorded. This fact, however, will be disclosed in the notes. Pending bets are not recognized as derivates in accordance with IAS 39 due to the fact that they are not significant to the consolidated financial statements.

Under a customer loyalty programme introduced in , the Company gives customers playing real money games of chance bonus points that are added to a separate account. The award credits given are reported as separate units of accounting of a multiple-element contract. Revenue associated with the anticipated service award is measured at fair value and recognized as a reduction of sales.

Revenue is realized only when the awards are redeemed. In accordance with IAS 39 and the standards of the gaming business, the net balance of betting stakes and winnings paid out from all product areas, and the winnings together with the rake obtained from poker products are recognized in the income statement less any reductions such as sales commissions, bonuses granted to players, licence costs and gaming duties as net gaming revenues net presentation.

Estimates and judgements in relation to future developments The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires the management of the Company to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that may affect the use of accounting and valuation methods and the amounts of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses recognized. Such estimates and the resulting assumptions are based on historical experience and various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the given circumstances, and they form the basis for measuring the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities that are not readily available from other sources.

The actual results may differ from these estimates. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods. The most important assessments made by management of the Company with respect to the application of IFRS that may have a significant effect on the consolidated financial statements, and estimates entailing a risk that the assets and liabilities reported may have to be significantly adjusted within the next financial year are described below:.

Goodwill, customer base, marketing rights, software, property and equipment, equity investments are measured on the basis of estimates of future cash flows in some instances using forecasts. See note 22 for impairments recognized and the relevant assumptions made, and for the carrying amounts, see the notes on the items of the balance sheet.

Obligations associated with loan guarantees, other guarantees and contingencies not shown in the balance sheet are monitored on a regular basis to determine whether they should be recognized in the financial statements see note on other obligations and contingent liabilities. Deferred tax assets on loss carry-forwards and other deductible temporary differences are not recognized as at present it is unlikely that they will be realized within a reasonable period of time.

The estimates for the provisions for legal and consulting fees incurred by the Company for legal proceedings are reviewed on a regular basis to ensure that the provisions are appropriate. With respect to the contingent purchase price liability which was renegotiated with the sellers of the shares in the Ongame group, the Company evaluates on a regular basis whether bwin will be able to re-enter the US market.

As of the reporting date, it was not likely that this liability would become due. The assessment that bwin e. Pfennigwerth into consideration. Notes to the consolidated balance sheet and income statement. Acquisition costs. Balance as of 1 January Exchange rate differences. Balance as of 31 December Accumulated amortization. Carrying amount as of 31 December

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