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Riza and Roy are expecting, however creative differences leave them stuck on a name. All bets are on! Winry prided herself on her situational awareness, quick thinking, and high bullshit threshold.

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Billetterie leclerc betting calculator

Nor could he discover now what was the curious excitement that seemed to quiver in his alternate partners; and he was certainly baffled by the bewildering fashion of their talk. As well he might be; for Peter and Merle, dizzied by the constant change and interchange of male involved by quartette, occasionally allowed their separate manners to overlap, with merely amusing results when Stuart received the St. Quentin dregs, but absolutely fatal when St. They were being shockingly ill-bred, the three; not a doubt of it.

And he had hailed a taxi, for which vehicles he certainly possessed magnetic attractions, had helped in Merle and Peter, and had given the address at Lancaster Gate, before St. Quentin was allowed a chance to proffer services. The car shot round the corner. Peter laughed, understanding; and because his methods amused her. But Merle gasped in some disturbance. They drew up before the quaint white hostelry in Soho; set off by its dark and murky surroundings, and proclaiming aloud its aloofness from these, by the ostentatious guardianship of two commissionaires.

Passing through the swing doors, Merle was caught up by the tumult of voices and ring of glass within; forgot to be prim and censorious; gave herself over entirely to the joy of this unexpected, and—as far as Madame des Essarts was concerned—forbidden truancy. So they came for the first time to the Billet-doux, destined to prove one of the permanent backgrounds to their triangular career.

And the austere and melancholy [50] Spanish waiter who assisted them to uncloak, did not for a moment guess how he was to be puzzled by the alternate qualities and quantities of their future comings; merely noticed that the party seemed in excellent spirits, and that the gentleman spent commendably little time and breath in his selection of the supper. And here again the girls silently approved. No chucking about of gold purses to the populace, mark you.

As long as you never permit us to see more than two sovereigns at a time, our three-ship shall endure. But the rest of your vast fortune, and all your motor-cars and boot-trees, you must hide in mattresses and banks. Is that understood? And in consideration of his quenched demeanour, they agreed to expand the limits by a florin.

And here Merle demanded explanations, which were midway interrupted by a wail of despair from Peter; she had somehow contrived to mix her implements so that whichever way she worked it, the fish-knife would be left for dessert. Stuart looked for enlightenment at Merle:. Stuart and Merle, if only in jest; and Peter the outsider.

Not for one moment could the flexible triangle retain its form. Merle owned to an elder brother who dwelt in Paris. En route , I gave Peter a party consisting of Fernand, and a first-class wagon-lit. The shape had altered again Obviously it was impossible to keep intimacy of speech and spirit moving between more than two points; the idea was to spin it so swiftly from one to another and then on, as [52] to give the appearance of all three simultaneously involved.

He carried a big box of chocolates for Merle, and a smaller one for her little friend also. He conveyed to Merle the compliments of all her unknown relatives in Paris; and she cast down her eyes, transformed to an embodiment of the virginal jeune fille , convent-fresh and dewy, and conveyed to him the compliments of all his unknown relatives in London. And they thanked each other separately for each one.

In this wise did they continue to converse. He sat opposite them, as it were one pitted against two. And the girls marvelled anew that aught with the looks and costume and bearing of conventional man-about-town, eye-glass and knowledge of the wine-list, should yet have caught the melody of their pipes, and revealed in response his own nimble goat-legs. The [53] proximity of the mirror which enlarged their number to six, lent a grotesque flavour to the scene, allowing each of the players the illusion of being at the same time spectator; placing the table, with its shining napery and silver, tumbled shimmer of whitebait, and dull red Burgundy in the glasses, outside and apart from reality.

Stuart, catching at one moment the reflected eyes of his companions, toasted them silently in phantom wine The light and stir of the restaurant, the drifting brilliant figures from one crowded room to another, the gay groups, talking, laughing, were all, as it were, subordinated, like supers in a stage set. So the solicitous waiter, hovering, might have been stolen from some sinister Spanish masque of passion and hatred.

From an outer chamber, drifted wailing snatches of violin-play. The ghost of Mark St. I think so; three green Chartreuses. I wonder if my wife would let me keep one in the back-garden, among the washing. I can not understand the state of mind which leads a man to marriage: the eternal sucking of the same orange, when there are thousands for his plucking.

His tone was of the lightest, but Peter understood that it veiled a warning. And she was conscious of a sudden rage that he should deem a warning necessary. For I am aware of the exact instant just before the juice is all spent and the skin will taste bitter in my mouth.

And then I cast away my orange and gather another. There are so many in the grove that sometimes indeed I am tempted to leave one half-sucked, to try the flavour of the next. I likewise suck silently, and with great haste, greediness and appreciation. And the whole way ye shall slip ignominiously.

What am I, natural? Not of such stuff are born the Orange-Suckers, the Hairpin-Visionists. And that mental process follows the curves of an ordinary hairpin, starting at one of the points—then forward—and back again. What a grotesque looking-glass existence! And called for the bill. They had supped luxuriously, and drunken of wine that lay cradled in straw, a white muffler about its slender neck. So that the reckoning amounted to two pounds three and twopence. Stuart was about to fling down three pieces of gold—when he remembered I believe we are.

Peter looked at Stuart—and surprised a rather lorn and out-of-it expression on his face. The triangle for the moment was clearly isosceles: a short line connecting points X and Z at the base, while Y lay infinitely remote at the apex. And the pride of them was like wind sweeping through the hair. Pride of youth and good looks and active limb. Pride in their need of one another, and their power to stand alone withal. Most of all, pride of brain, that could leap from point to point, nor ever lose a foothold; propound subtlety upon subtlety, each of the three eager to give the corkscrew its final twist, till towards the seventh evolution they would laughingly give up, and slowly unwind again.

Brains that could be adapted to any circumstances and any company; wring enjoyment from the most unpromising material; brains [57] that forgot not, so that reference became a language, incomprehensible save to those who had invented the cipher.

Brains responsive, electric, in perfect working order. Pride of brain, surely as splendid a thing as the more usual pride of body that waits on youth. The trio, definitely established, possessed a spirit of its own; its actions were wilful and indeterminate, and none could know its soul save by inspiration. It was built of cross-moods, cross-stimulations; and it owned no leader nor follower, but changed its several parts from moment to moment.

A thing of fine complexity, the trio, that could adjust itself to the shock of any outside problem or weariness,—in fact, take unto and into itself these same problems and wearinesses, and make of them part of the whole, subjugated to its domination. And its god was the unknown, and its fear the Inevitable, and retrospect its recreation, and in the Hairpin Vision lay its safety, and in sex its slumbering danger. The Spanish waiter, only human, went so far as to rejoice in the sight of Peter and Stuart supping alone; since himself had begun to regard Merle with a more than waiterly eye.

He was both puzzled and furious, two nights later, at the entrance of Stuart and Merle. The Spanish waiter might stand as the first of a collection of persons convinced of the madness of the trio: collection of incidentals to their daily progress, such as railway-porters, policemen, telephone operators, grocers, boatmen, parents, rustics and [58] Baldwin.

March 2nd, On accidentally catching sight of Trio solemnly smashing egg at the end of Euston. Peter could best have enlightened the Respectable Old Gentleman, to whom stations were stations, neither more nor less. Euston was her terminus for Thatch Lane; and on the many occasions that Stuart had accompanied her thither, they had taken to their hearts the grim portals and endless echoing approach, the labyrinth of platform and grey mystery of booking-hall, the infinite possibilities in its stretching regions and sinister corners.

Very much less than station, when their whim was to treat it as a nursery of toys; and how much more than station, when its oppressive personality foredoomed it as a backcloth for the day when their mood should be of tragedy. Peter and Stuart viewed Euston with respect; but regarded it neverthe [59] less as theirs by virtue of understanding, a kingdom into which even Merle could not stray.

In the balancing whereof—for Stuart was careful to dole even kingdoms and secrets with perfect equality and fairness—he and Merle were both Insiders of society, permitting them likewise to be Truants from society; a privilege Peter lacked, in that one cannot play truant from a stage one has never entered. Heron and des Essarts; riches and family; youth and beauty; it was an alliance altogether too suitable, and the parties involved felt it their bounden duty not to give it visible encouragement.

Truants of society both, they enjoyed their truancy as much for what they left behind, as for what they went to seek. Peter smiled sometimes, as she reflected how little of sordid niggling money worries, of harassing debts, of the snatching hour-to-hour existence that went on in the Bohemian underworld, was known to those who have a sufficiency of baths, and travel first-class as a matter of course. Perversely enough, she hugged to herself the [60] memory of the few years she had spent on the border-line between respectability and squalor; was glad they were hers alone, unshared by Merle or Stuart.

Her one-world! She and Merle had not as yet succeeded in locating the heel of their Achilles. Stuart was hard and ruthless, that they had agreed in their many confabulations on the subject; quite without sympathy for weakness or sentiment of any kind.

But signs had betrayed a vulnerable spot in him, tantalizingly indicated, vanished as soon as they attempted to follow up the trail. Childish he certainly was at times. Childishly petulant on an occasion when the girls took him adventuring in a part of the world unfamiliar to him, so that initiative fell for once into their hands.

Childishly ill-mannered on another occasion, when Peter, partly in the spirit of mischief, sought to make a quartette of trio by the introduction of a new discovery in the male line. Then Stuart, even as he had done previously with Mark St. Quentin, uprose mightily in his wrath, and hurled the unoffending youth from the topmost battlements into the moat of blackness.

You were worse; you hurt his feelings! And the incident closed on a laugh. But childishness was not weakness; nor could it account for those moments when he seemed mutely to plead to them for something. And then the memory would be swept away in a gale of swagger, loud crows of self-approval,—accompanied always by a twinkle in the unwindowed eye, that plainly betrayed amused knowledge of his own effrontery.

And he wears himself out in the invention of opportunities to wear himself out. How are you? Thus theirs was the advantage, to be able to make of him a subject for discussion. Stuart knew no such relief. His search for truth in this double she-encounter had of necessity to be a solitary quest. Nor did his previous she-encounters assist him one whit.

He could rely on Merle and Peter to be thoroughly loyal to one another, and unblushingly disloyal towards him, which was baffling, by way of a beginning. They showed far [62] cleverer than the sirens who had previously essayed to lure his boat to destruction, save when he sought to compare them with females renownedly intellectual, when by sheer perversity, the two would present themselves to his mental conception as capriciously feminine, exasperating in their swift changes of mood, in their demands upon him for the impossible, in their conscious and provoking mystery.

No space of time to analyse them individually as separate Sphinxes for his unravelling. As yet they were still an undivided problem. He knew they kept guarded and intact their innermost chambers of all. Well—did he not also retain his one-world?

A world in which dwelt Stuart the metaphysician, who, stronger even than Stuart the leprechaun, recognized with dismay an ability to slip out of the trio and its pattern, its march-rhythm and its corkscrew wit; get glimpses of himself as a bit of a fool; of the whole edifice they had raised, as absurd, exaggerated; doubting whether such close comradeship with two girls, save with the outlook and excuse of pure masculinity, did not contain an element—yes, though he loathed the term, an element of the fantastic?

In fact, when he could add himself to the collection that was to be left to the nation. But he limited these glimpses, as being contrary to the rules of the game; would have denied them himself altogether, had he not been convinced they added to the fun,—the fun of scrambling back, aware he had been outside, a truant from truancy! The metaphysician went in fear that the leprechaun would one day lose his scrambling abilities; that the intellect would predominate over the sense of worlds beyond the reach of facts.

The metaphysician was wistfully envious of the leprechaun, who continued to kick up his heels in despite of disapproval. There likewise dwelt in the one-world a Stuart Heron known to college friends, such as Oliver Strachey, who remembered him as the finest classical scholar of his [63] year; and other men viewing him solely in the light of a keen sportsman; a fellow good to knock about with; not much of a talker; inclined to be a bit shattering and explosive at times, but apologizing for these ebullitions by a great excess of heartiness afterwards; excess indeed, for Stuart was apt to over-emphasize his normality.

The trio had been afloat since early hours, before the sun had yet drunk all the diamond dew from the cobwebs, and Peter more than once apologized to Stuart for the continual reminders of his trade that sparkled from every grass-blade, every opening leaf. Their boat had pushed first into all the locks, and shot first out, nose thrust between the slowly widening gates. Stuart, you shall be the father.

Merle demurred. At which thrust, Peter renounced the entire game, and decided she wanted to play at hounds-among-the-undergrowth. Her companions looked puzzled. Hounds of Low? Hounds of Heaven? Or just Faithful Hounds? Peter, please specify, and I might even play at being just one tiny little puppy bloodhound myself. In the end Stuart was the entire pack, and Master of the Hounds to boot. And then they abandoned this new sport in favour of the Spanish Armada; sailed ignited fireships down a backwater, and roused volumes of sputtering and inarticulate wrath in the bosom of a mild man of peace whose skiff they had almost set in flames.

Now, subdued to a more twilit mood, they lie dark against the quenched amber and pearl of the sunset; and reviewing their April day, they find it good. Stuart, in ostentatious proof that he needs no rest from his Herculean labours with the pole, has allowed Peter to recline full-length in the punt, her head upon his knees, the while she lazily smokes a cigarette, and complains that his bones penetrate the thickness of four cushions, and hurt the back of her neck.

And now it is that Peter solemnly propounds the question, as to whether a consciousness of swank and swagger, and b consciousness of the irritation produced in others by swank and swagger, could or could not be held as mitigating circumstances for aforesaid swank and swagger? He is very unlike a man at these minutes; gnome, pixie or hobgoblin might claim him brother.

And why limit the problem to yourself? I was talking generally. A long and careful study of the differences between male and female intellect has finally convinced me that the latter is incapable of generalities, of completely impersonal discussion. Follow the wriggling rivers of her speech backwards to their source, and you will discover the Subjective Sea.

And if it justifies my swank, then my swank is non-existent. But your question respecting the mitigating circumstances of our consciousness [66] thereof, is rot, my dear Peter. Because swagger is consciousness, to start with.

Shall we paddle her home, Merle? The haze of evening has crept up, white-footed, from the south. A Dryad moves from the bank, seats herself beside a Faun. The rhythmic dip and swirl of their paddles dies away into silence. And the pride of them was like wind sweeping through the hair; pride in their ability to maintain without disaster this strangely exhilarating friendship of one and two; flaunt it in the very face of the Inevitable.

Nor was her ardour abated when Merle reminded her that April was still in its heyday. The weather is a sheer intoxication, and calls for revelry. Merle looked at her helplessly. You can choose between these rural delights. Merle, what do you say to a grand un-birthday festival? Stuart shall take us into the country to toss cowslip balls. And I hate still more the ponderous business face with which he receives her pretty importunities. Besides, he begged us to invade his premises one day and see him play at diamond-merchants.

Come along then. She was right about the weather: the warm air was a-stir with lilac promise, and passing faces gave evidence of spring-cleaning within, a more potent and magical spring-cleaning than ever achieved by mop and broom. They were conducted through two or three apartments, containing nothing more thrilling than cupboards and clerks, so that Merle assumed the jewels were kept in glittering caverns below; and then ushered into an anteroom, formal and luxurious, in which were already seated several applicants for royal favour, grave men and grey, all.

Stuart is engaged. What name shall I say? Of course Merle had her card-case. And a card. And white kid gloves with which to present it. More than could be said for Peter. Their guide withdrew, having first motioned the girls to deep leather arm-chairs, into which they sank and were obliterated. The silence of the room became thick and muffled. A clock ticked ponderously from the chimney-piece. The assembled veterans made no sound, with the exception of one who played nervously with his feet, advancing these by slow stages towards one another, and then scurrying them apart, as if fearful of being caught in the act.

Peter watched him, fascinated. It was fully ten minutes before hurried steps approached the door There had been changes in the firm of Heron and Carr since Stuart entered it, three years before. Uncle Arthur had embraced the opportunity to retire from business. Derwent Heron was growing old, and absented himself frequently from the office: Baldwin—well, Baldwin at the best of times was useful mostly as an ornament.

Thus it befell that a great deal of responsibility fell on the shoulders of the new partner. Nor was Stuart averse to this. He was right when he said that a game lost its value unless played in all seriousness. On the whole he made few mistakes, though his lucky star ran [70] the risk, from overwork, of becoming somewhat frayed at the edges. Frequently he deplored the difficulty of truly reckless gambling, with that officious orbit fore-dooming him ever to success.

Of late, certain events had decided him to buy in a vast amount of stock, giving mostly bills in exchange. Then, like a bolt from the blue, one Antoine Gobert, from Venezuela, made his sensational announcement: no less than the discovery of a cheap preparation for the making of diamonds.

The days following this revelation were fraught with the greatest strain to the merchants in the trade. It was unlucky for the youngest diamond-merchant in London that he should have been buying in with such rapidity and vigour. His elders shook their grey heads over Stuart, but consulted him notwithstanding, in this period of crisis; an unconscious tribute to certain brilliant strokes made by the firm within the past three years.

Gobert, having flung his bombshell, did not seem inclined to part too easily with the mysteries of his prescription. Rumour was busy, and prices fluctuated wildly. With difficulty was a panic averted. Stuart firmly declared the magician a fraud; continued to assert it contrary to the opinions of the majority, older men, men of deep experience. It was felt that some decisive step would have to be taken, before Gobert should make newspaper babble of his secret. Already journalism was on the scent; and once known, the romance of the thing would cause it to be gobbled greedily by the public.

So the wizard was approached; discreetly sounded; finally, an offer made to him by Sir Fergus Macpherson, of the firm of Grey, Macpherson and Sons, well-known diamond-merchants. An offer of twenty thousand pounds for the purpose of private experiment; a slip of paper, containing the exact [71] ingredients of the manufacture, to be placed, in token of good faith, at the Bank of England.

Gobert refused twenty thousand pounds. Not enough. Fifty thousand then? So be it, fifty thousand. The money was paid over, and the experiments started. Then, somehow a doubt of Gobert arose and grew. And that very day, April the 16th, it was finally decided that the envelope was to be opened, the miracle laid bare. If genuine—so much the worse for dealers in diamonds; so much the worse for Stuart Heron in particular. The issue would not have loomed in his eyes so stupendous, were it not that he felt his credit with Derwent and Arthur at stake.

The firm had relied on his judgment. So that, sitting in earnest consultation with Sir Fergus and a certain Rupert Rosenstein, his mouth was set in sterner lines than his age warranted, and a deep frown lay between his eyebrows. But it was several minutes before Sir Fergus rose to take leave. Glittering crystals, produced in such quantities as to flood the universe like dewfall Stuart straightened his shoulders. No good anticipating the worst. Peter and Merle were waiting, rather impatiently, at the far end of the apartment.

Some of their April joyousness had been swamped by the oppressive atmosphere surrounding them. The sunshine, creeping through the heavily curtained window, was merely metallic here. So that they greeted Stuart with relief. And now please take it off. Or is it merely semi-detached? Stuart did not reply. Nor was there perceptible alteration in his demeanour. But Peter was too amused by his garments of black decorum, to note that to-day they were something more than skin-deep. You promised us the hat!

Are you in any trouble? Or—can I? His eye fell on Digby, eager for attention. He looked relieved. Would you care to have a look round the place? Baldwin glanced in some surprise at the figures of Peter and Merle, standing irresolutely by the window. Then returned to his private office. The confidential clerk showed them out. On the stone steps, they came face to face with a little shrivelled man, head cocked to one side; Arthur Heron, had they known it; rat about to rejoin the sinking ship.

Every time she recalled the blank look which had received her first eager speeches it was as if someone had dealt her a blow in the face. Oh, the stinging ignominy which lay in the remembrance of Merle and herself, two blushing incoherent little—idiots, intruding with froth and futility into the world of real things, solid things, things that matter, world of men.

And Stuart could so easily have averted humiliation from their heads: one look, one word, to prove his recollection of the thousand intimacies that had lain between them. He should be sorrier still, soon! His fault, every bit; not for ejecting them, but for ever having dared invite them—to meet with that. For Madame des Essarts had sallied forth, in diamonds and dignity, to a banquet celebrating the arrival in office of a new Greek minister.

The handsome old lady, with her social talents, her knowledge of foreign languages, her dainty pointed wit, the aura of martyrdom which clung to her enforced exile from the hated Republic of France—to which she could return whenever she pleased—was of the type that had, in ruffled and beruffled days, swayed kings and unmade ministers.

Perhaps the secret of her lost art lay in the fact that she never for one moment forgot she was dealing with men, nor let them forget that she regarded them as such, lords and puppets. Not for Antoinette des Essarts the cheery comradeship, the quick sexless sympathy, the contempt of cajolery and intrigue, which distinguished the generation among which she now moved. In her soft gown of eau-de-nil —for who, argues Madame des Essarts, who of the noblesse would appear by evening light save in silk attire and satin slipper?

Peter should by invitation have been keeping her company this night, and making exceeding merry over the ceremonial repast. Yet to-night, lacking Peter, some of the old wistful regrets touched Merle with chilly fingers; followed her with ghostly trip into the little boudoir, grey and primrose, Lancret looped medallion-wise into the overmantel; whispered in lisping voices of a day that might possibly come when Dresden, with ribboned crook for sceptre, should again reign supreme in her life; pointed in light mockery to a picture that adorned the wall: Merle herself, aged eight, standing stiffly posed beside a sundial; hands busy with the ivory sticks of a painted fan; toes primly turned outwards; smooth, dark curls; high-waisted pink frock.

One moment fixed indelibly to symbolize a whole childhood. Who had taught her otherwise, before her twentieth birthday? An April shower of rain swept the panes, glowing sapphire-dark behind their primrose hangings. With wild hurrahs, a tangle of long legs and flying skirts whizzed down the banisters and landed in a heap at the foot. Something delightful and sturdy, with dark red hair and blown-out cheeks, was marching to and fro on the polished drawing-room floor, waving flags and shouting Thus Merle drew from the Land of Corners, shadowy corners of the old house, dim unswept corners in her brain, dog-eared corners of forgotten picture-books, a whole host of children; ordinary, healthy, grubby youngsters, who would reduce the silent beautiful rooms to their proper state of scrum and chaos.

Above all, naughty children; she collected the warm cosy naughtinesses that has never been hers; gloated over each separate deed of infamy; as if in offering to the prim sad-eyed daintily clothed image on the wall. Dick was for ever robbing orchards and being chased by irate farmers. But then how could he help it, this eldest son of hers, just entering that close-cropped hobnailed condition that betokens the schoolboy? And Merle liked to see his rough bullet-head buried in her lap, in moods of half-sullen contrition; would have kept it permanently there, had Dick been willing.

Nobody-loves-me came wandering in from the garden. Boy-girl it was who erstwhile slid the banisters; she, who climbed trees, and made ladders in her stockings—such as no young lady should—and blarneyed the cook; and once, by way of an experiment, cut short not only her own mane of hair, but also the straggly crop of Nobody-loves-me.

The incarnation of swift and mischievous daring, Boy-girl; but who could be angry with her long, when she brought her coaxing Irish charm to bear on the situation? Merle was not quite sure. She knew only that it was, undeniably, Irish charm. And finally solved the riddle by making the shadowy father of this swarming brood, a son of Erin.

The little-mother-to-her-sisters-and-brothers, gentle, smooth-haired and fond of her needle, to be found in every well-regulated family, Merle, on consideration, also presented as a free gift to Peter. Her own unacknowledged favourite was the funny little beggar with the puck-like ears, three-cornered nostrils set to catch the rain, and scientific mind; which latter prompted him invariably to take articles to pieces for the sake of seeing how they worked.

And they never worked again. There were many, many costly rarities in the house, Merle remembered happily, that literally asked for his attentions. Or did she after all more tenderly incline to the delicate child with clustering pale-gold hair? Unable to slaughter in cold blood anything so lately born, she compromised by Tumultuously alive now, all these ordinary healthy grubby youngsters; making walls within and sky without, resound with their whoops and coo-ees.

A few stray naughtinesses yet to be collected from chimney-corner and rafter and cellar; such as leaving all doors open,—except, in swift amendment, when Dick rather chooses to bang them. The nurseries overflow with messy pets—nor does Puck ever [80] remember to feed his guinea-pig.

And now Stuart is standing before her, eyes full of trouble She made no reply, not quite sure whether his mood be not of mockery. And suddenly, with a quick and—for him—rather clumsy movement, he dropped onto his knees beside her chair, buried his head deep in her lap; so that it almost seemed as if Dick Merle let her fingers stray, half-fearfully, among the rebellion of rough brown hair.

For in the blur of twilight and dreams and pattering rain, she could not as yet entirely separate her phantom visitants from the real ones. And with a gulp and a leap, the room was warm with a multitude of tiny blue tongues, licking and panting through their skull-like rings. Then it came out, not in a grateful [81] unburdening torrent, but in wrung jerky sentences, of which the last caught up and contained the whole hidden cause of pain:.

Something wrong here which lay too deep for her understanding. Merle asked no questions; content to dry his coat; touch lingeringly his hair and shoulders; give him the comfort she dimly felt he most needed. His fingers, which had gripped and twisted at hers till she could have cried out with the pain, now slackened their pressure. For the moment, the girl had succeeded in exorcising the demons which were so strangely tormenting his soul.

A hush in the room. A hush so profound, that two little figures stirred restlessly in their corner, came tip-toeing hand-in-hand towards the door of the boudoir. If only they would leave him in peace, just for a moment, mind and body. He said nothing, but still pleaded; and bending down her face to his, she found their lips clinging together. After he had gone, Merle sat awhile, wondering how much of what had passed must be told to Peter. Loyalty, and the compact they had made: whatever happened, to keep the path unblocked between them, demanded an exact account of events.

But that compact had been formed in alliance against a hard and ruthless Stuart of their imaginings. Her instincts were all to protect the boy who had come to her in his trouble. He had come to her—the thought was charged with sweetness. And here she experienced a pang of pity for the girl, the other girl, who looked like being the one left out. Hers to disprove the theory. A secret unshared by Peter would, moreover, be an insult to the spirit of the trio; the first menace to its continued existence.

Merle hesitated no longer, but sat down at the escritoire, and wrote her letter; a letter which omitted nothing, not even the final embrace—though she winced at the thought that Peter might possibly misconstrue it to something more of man and woman, less of child. Then she rang the bell and gave orders for the missive to be taken at once to the post. Up the hushed staircase, and into the vast shadowy bedroom.

Old Rosenstein! Not a sign of him. Left that morning, the landlady said; bag, baggage—and incidentally, our fifty thousand. Still, compared with what it might have cost us—well, what do you think of it? And then I must be off. Wanted to set your mind at rest first. Where have you been all these hours?

Something like emotion shook his voice. He awoke next day to the same memory, lashing him with whips of shame. Stuart did not spare himself in terms of abuse. And Merle had encouraged him to make an exhibition of himself; Merle had lent a sympathetic ear to his woes; asked no [86] questions; flooded him with rosy forgiveness. Merle had made it easy for him—easy and comfortable; dried his coat Verb which to Stuart expressed the apex of abomination. A sense of justice reasserted itself.

Merle was charming, no doubt of it; her response to his appeal a very idyll of fragrance and simplicity. Then, returning to her room, she seated herself on the edge of the bed; and, a pale-haired gleaner in the early sunshine, proceeded to examine her harvest. The bill contained an intimation to the effect that Mr. Lazarus, tailor, was amazed that Miss Kyndersley should have ignored his repeated applications for payment, [87] and could only suppose they had slipped her memory, as otherwise doubtless, etc.

Of paying there could be no question. Peter, true to the traditions of her caste, never settled her debts till actually threatened by the law; when she would hastily sell her silver hair-brushes, or borrow from her aunt, or pledge the half-of-her-next-year-but-one income; diminutive amount at best, inherited from her dead mother. Never yet had she been altogether free from pecuniary embarrassments; would indeed have missed the background of their mutterings, as those who have dwelt long by the sea cannot bear to be deprived of its eternal swish.

Quentin, striving to mingle in equal proportions formality with infatuation, begged leave to visit her at Thatch Lane the following Sunday. She wondered what his attitude was likely to be. Peter raised her head; gazed straight through the window, across garden and hedge and field, to where the Weald hunched its back against the sky. But her eyes missed the tender greens and misty blues of the landscape; could not share in the joy of the house on discovering it at last owned, after five gloomy months, a clear black shadow to lay upon the dew-wet grass.

It was not the incident itself which rankled; but recognition of a fact that long ago had carried its conviction, though only now its results: Merle was allowed, by the unseen code, to be the more feminine of the twain.

She, Peter, thrust willy-nilly into the bolder, more challenging position. Was it that she was born with a tilt to her soul, as well as to her nose and chin? She could not tell. But Stuart, gravitating to her for all stimulation, had nevertheless gone to Merle for comfort.

And Peter wondered furthermore why she played up so persistently to the Laughing-Cavalier qualities, with which from the very first he had chosen to endow her. And, wondering, knew yet that she must continue boyish and defiant; though she, even as Merle, wanted how much to be tender to him in his present attire of sackcloth and ashes. The breakfast-gong, half an hour later, led her to the bathroom; and another quite irrelevant gong saw her wrestling with stockings.

Easy enough to find time for being sorry, after the cause of anxiety had been removed. It required no Stuart Heron for that. Nor did she consider that the strain adequately accounted for his preoccupation of the morning.

According to his own standards, he should be strung up to response at any moment, however inopportune. If he could be exacting, why, so also could she. Quite cured of her yearnings towards womanly tenderness, she tossed aside the paper, and helped herself to eggs and bacon. And these things will get in the papers, and there you are! What can you expect? Thus having, according to custom, neatly packed away the entire set of events within her own private and particular boundaries; reduced each participant, including Heaven and the Bank of England, to a height convenient for patting on the head, Miss Esther Worthing asked for the marmalade.

The telephone bell rang. Peter dashed up the stairs, prepared to spurn still further into the dust the bowed [90] and prostrate figure at the other end of the wire. That you, Peter It would have been so much less obvious on your part, to have held out the hand of forgiveness.

Peter thought how pleasant it would be to hurt him. Hurt him quite badly. Naturally, after your business troubles were so unexpectedly smoothed out, you had leisure to turn your attention to—minor matters. Their speeches followed each other with the thud and rebound of a swift rally over the tennis-net.

At present you are merely laying yourself open to the unpleasant necessity of apologizing. She was unable to tell if his evident anger were assumed or genuine. But, if the latter, so much the better; she anticipated a pleasurable excitement from the unexplored territory beyond the limits of his tolerance. He was speaking again. And Peter wished he would free his voice from its straining bonds of control. I am a liar. A very plausible and rather dangerous liar. But, quite by accident, in the present instance I happen to be speaking the truth.

Peter went for a walk. She walked hard for a couple of hours; avoided the plunging soil of pasture-land, in favour of hard country roads, where her feet met with a ringing resistance. On reaching a village, six miles distant from Thatch Lane, she entered without hesitation the local post-office.

In this wise, the trio forfeited their first fine carelessness. Disintegration was imminent, though none could tell as yet which way it would manifest itself. Each of their words and actions, however trivial, took on a certain significance. For Merle had battled with the temptation to be disloyal towards Peter. For Stuart had twice in a day ceased to be master of his moods, and vowed by all his gods these moods should neither recur again.

For Merle cherished the second of them as a memory sweeter than music. For Merle had been visited by an old ghost, and by a merry host of new ones. For Peter had definitely flung her cloak, tossed her plume, donned the disguise which Stuart mistook for nature.

For all these follies and cross-follies are the outcome of certain fatal desires to go a-maying on a day of April! Apology that would probably manifest itself in a deed of unwonted daring, originality and impudence, that none might suspect it of being an apology; deed which would firmly re-establish in the eyes of the twain his slightly shaken position.

For though with Peter he had crossed swords in single combat, had known the pleasure of knocking from her grasp the weapon, the pleasure of stepping back to allow her to resume it,—not, most certainly, because he was a little gentleman, but because he preferred her blade in hand; for though with Merle he had walked awhile in a two-world too softly cushioned for his taste; yet with these things the spirit of the trio did not concern itself.

Nor was it to be placated save by offering to the number three. Dorothy wanted to know if she need write to you both separately, but I said it would be all right. Shall we accept? My country boots are done for. The Bull and Boot sounds like a public-house. Grandmaman had no objections whatever, though the invitation came somewhat too informally for her notions of etiquette. Stuart established her with Merle in a first-class carriage, with every possible luxury; for in detail-work he excelled, never allowing their schemes to be upset by a single hitch of the mechanical order.

Then, to their astonishment, he begged leave to retire to a smoker. They saw nothing of him during the next few hours, not even in the luncheon-car. The engine gathered all its slumbering forces, and thundered at the speed of a mile a minute through the tiny station in its setting of bold red rock.

Which was obvious, seeing that her slight figure against the window was flung from side to side by the reckless pace at which the express was pounding through Devon. I doubt if she knows of your existence. You played with fire.

You lured us from our homes on false pretences? So he merely nodded assent. He stole a glance at Peter; her eyes were dancing, and the corners of her mouth tilted upwards. So that he knew he had pleased her. Heron should come together. Your mother will know that we are not where we seem. Merle took fright at the notion. Grandmaman moves mainly among consuls, you know. But they visit on At Home days.

I sat me down and thought and thought and thought what one lady could be made to do, to mortally offend another. I repeat, to mortally offend another. All for the prevention of visits on At Home days. Would you like me to make out the list for your big reception next month?

Nay, she was touched almost to the point of tears. So I sat me down again at her desk, with lots of ceremonial and fuss—address-books heaped all round, a new ruler, and red ink, and a Bradshaw and Debrett and the telephone book; and made out a list of visitors, omitting the name of Madame des Essarts. Mark you this, Merle! Then I read the list aloud to my mother, including the name of Madame des Essarts.

Mark you this also, Merle! Then my mother, well-pleased, handed to her private secretary the list, minus the name of Madame des Essarts. And Madame des Essarts, not receiving an invitation to the reception, will be mortally offended. And my mother, receiving no reply from Madame des Essarts, will likewise be mortally offended. Both mortally offended.

The feud will probably extend over generations. Montague and Capulet. In consequence whereof, Merle and I will be forbidden to marry. And your grand operatic abduction will be a failure. And they took three rooms at the Ocean Hotel, facing the sea to the south and to the west, because it was too late the night of their arrival to seek convenient caves, especially three caves of exactly the same dimensions, conditions essential to avoid jealousy and strife. The Ocean Hotel stood on an isolation of headland, like some stone medieval fortress, frowning at the rocky imitation opposite, which ran far out into the Atlantic, and then piled itself up crag upon crag, an echo wrought in granite.

Peter awoke the next morning, possessed by a great lust for actual touch of the sea, where she had hitherto only enjoyed its sight and sound; and would hardly leave her companions time to wallow in the tubs of yellow cream which were a feature of their breakfast, in her impatience to run down the steep twisting path which she knew existed somewhere just outside But the land of Cornwall and the waves of Cornwall were not ready yet to be friends with the strangers; and all that day led them a mocking dance by crag and outjutting cape and promontory; over moor and round seven points, and never a downward way to the sea.

Cast an evil spell upon the strangers, so that ever from two hundred feet below, the water beckoned them stealthily into cavernous velvet glooms; sang loudly [99] of wonder and glory in the cold crash of breakers against the cliff; tormented them with glint of blue in its plum-darkness, hint of glittering green whenever the clouds above swirled aside to reveal patches of clear sky. For the strangers need not yet be shown what riot of colours were sheathed in scabbard of sullen grey.

Peter could have dragged the elusive sun by main force into prominence, battered with fists of rage against the uncompromising fall of rock which baffled her, and mocked her, and drew her on with continual promise of a way to the sea round the next curve Stuart laughed at her impatience.

It was a hard land, a good land; and he knew it, and did not talk about it, but was content to swing along over turf and bog and stone; aware of limitless space in which to tire his limbs. And once he came racing like a greyhound, past his comrades, towards a six-barred gate which lay ahead. Stuart could have shaken her for this effect on him. He did not mind at all behaving childishly, but objected vehemently to thinking childishly.

Peter perched herself upon the gate; and airily told the sea that it was all a mistake, she had no desire whatever to reach it. And the sea in response threw out a sparkle of gold and a spurt of foam, so that the longing rose in her heart fiercer than ever. It was a gate padlocked and bolted, though it led to nowhere, and guarded nothing; and to the right and left of it lay open country; and to the immediate right and left, piled-up blocks of rough stone, for kindly assistance of those who would elude the padlocks.

A mad gate in a mad country. And now the sun, thinking it had teased enough, broke in a pale dazzle on the grey land and sea; then, gaining strength, poured silver streams of light through a rent in the sky, lay in silver puddles and splashes on the water. The dark toneless granite piled itself into strange shapes of tower and turret, and all about the sea-birds wheeled and shrieked. Cities and churches and meadows A dead land, now. Peter smiled; so like Stuart, this glimpse of an afterwards as merely the rest which comes before a fresh bout of strenuous labour.

Peter looked around her, half-dazed by this long mental immersion in dark coral-caves. The sky had meanwhile deepened into blue, and all the buried colours of earth and water had leapt into being. Stuart seized the scarlet cap from her head, before she was even aware of his intentions, and was almost directly over the edge of safety, and out of sight. It was several minutes before they again caught sight of him, scrambling with all the agility appertaining to impossible schoolboy heroes, towards the spot indicated.

His figure was reduced by distance and surroundings to absurdly small dimensions. He paused on reaching his goal, hung the patch of crimson on to the ledge of rock, waved gaily towards his far-off companions; then, cramming the cap again in his pocket, swung himself round a boulder apparently poised in mid-air, and out of their line of vision.

Nothing can happen to Stuart, ever. But Peter had just learnt of something extremely disturbing which had happened to herself. And venting her indignation at the discovery, upon the cause thereof, refused to fall sobbing upon his neck, when he met them on the homeward way, and carelessly returned her [] headgear. Nor did she take outward and visible notice of bleeding abrasions upon either knee, ostentatiously displayed.

But Merle—feeling his recent performance ought really not to be encouraged—treated him to a sober lecture on foolhardiness, which lasted till Peter provided distraction by leaving her right leg, as far as the thigh, in a bog of black mud.

The sun was a level blaze of gold in their eyes, by the time they trudged up the last slope, and into their fortress. They were weary with a splendid weariness of limb; and drowsy with the strangeness of that strange land; and, moreover, wind-blown and wet and satiated of beauty. Peter entered her room, and closed the door; pulled down the blind to give respite from the outside world; plunged her hands in water, and cast off her shoes and stockings.

Then flung herself on the narrow bed, where Merle presently joined her. And they ate of the expensive chocolates destined for Mistress Dorothy Orson, and were at peace. Somebody whistling, now loudly, now softly, up and down the passages and stairs.

Nearing their door, it paused on a plaintive up-note of enquiry. Peter took pity on the homeless wanderer, and before Merle could protest, called him in. They must have turned my room into a step-ladder or a revolving book-case; I shall hate sleeping to-night in a revolving book-case; one would get so giddy. The room was small, with a dingy paper, and an [] unclothed gas-jet springing from the wall. The blind that shut out daylight, and dimmed the corners to mystery, was torn, and the cord flapped a perpetual complaint.

The tin basin on the washstand stood unemptied of its dirty water. Only their moods of serene happiness were rather at variance with the puppets of fiction, evil or perhaps merely hopeless, with which Zola might have peopled the dreary chamber. Nothing easier. That stretch of river between Cliveden and Cookham would make quite a good ceiling.

Nor will we take it on a repairing lease, but leave the Thames Conservancy responsible for damages. Merle at this juncture wanted to know how he saw the Thames Conservancy; in her eyes, it wore very bright blue with lots of gilt buttons, and was always sitting round a table. One wide person that could be stretched all round the table and be joined with a button when it met itself.

One giraffe, added to another Anyhow, Merle will want a domestic animal to cuddle on her lap. A giraffe will do nicely, besides being useful for measuring purposes. And because she secretly hoped for a canary, she proposed a tortoise. No, not even a dentist. A little wind flapped aside the blind, giving a momentary glimpse of sea-lapped rocks and battlements: a castle of enchantment aglow in the ebbing light. Merle immediately decided to have it transported to the Room, for her special use and benefit.

Not to be outdone, Stuart and Peter ordered each a castle of like design and pattern; he stipulating, however, [] for a border of Norfolk Broads in lieu of the Atlantic. And because his manner was wont to become suddenly absent and remote whenever he chanced to speak of his Sailing Paradise, they quickly granted him his desire, and changed the subject, lest he should elude them altogether. Indeed, Peter was in a terrible tangle; for she had discovered that inside her castle was a room— the Room, in fact; and this Room in its turn held a castle, the same castle—which held another Room, containing a castle, which——.

Quentin knows a lot about plumbing. Carr at a dinner-party, and derived from him a quantity of pure happiness. Quentin and Baldwin together, and keep the essence in a sentry-box in the Room, for the performing of odd jobs. Squeith has got personality. Squeith pleases me.

And Squeith shall immediately be set to work on that recurring decimal. It was perceived that even while they chattered, Room and castle had already recurred seven times, ending on a Room. And Peter said she would sleep in the last Room but one—the fifth, to be exact,—before the dot was put in. Beware of Counterfeit. An Outer Circle line running the whole way round, close under the walls; with real tunnels and signal-boxes. The lines shall be laid for the purpose of taking passengers from Euston to Euston.

And here Stuart interposed with the offer of his almost forgotten Wagon-lit , the tame red Wagon-lit with trustful brown eyes, hitherto kept in the back garden among the washing. He gave her a clothes-line, so that she could be perpetually wringing out her soul, and hanging it up to dry. In return for which piece of impertinence, she presented him with a nice easy rack, which he could work himself, like a barrel-organ, by turning a handle; and thus practise for half an hour every morning after breakfast, the self-torture he so affected.

With hurdles and barriers and sacks and barbed wire. Moonshades and paralunes. A little later, whilst playing, he rediscovered the secret of painting on glass. After his mother had hesitated between all the celebrated painters in Paris, she decided [Pg 21] on M. Ingres; the morality of all the others seemed to her to be insufficient or dubious. At nineteen, he saw his cousin, Marie Elisabeth Monchablon, and immediately fell in love with her. She was fifteen years old.

The very day he saw her he begged his mother to let him marry her. His mother was willing enough, but she thought the two children only old enough to be betrothed and not husband and wife. Marie Monchablon painted, also. The children painted together. Meanwhile, great progress was made at Ingres', and great friendship sprang up between Ingres and his pupil, who was now twenty-one and free, at last, to marry his cousin.

The day after their marriage, the young couple ran away to Holland. They were in haste to be free and, above all, to convince themselves of their freedom. For three months nobody knew what had become of them. They re-appeared at the end of that time. The turtle-doves returned of their own accord to their dovecot. The very day of his return he sketched a Suzanne au bain, which he finished in three weeks.

It is pale and, perhaps, rather monotonous in colouring, but picturesque in composition. He showed his picture to the two masters. Strange to say, they both praised the painter. The colour pleased M. Ingres; but he blamed the disordered composition. This was what Delacroix liked, but he blamed the colouring.

In short, each said to the young man, "You will be a painter! This time, he did not trouble himself much as to what M. Ingres would say; it was Delacroix he wished to please most of all; for, whilst admiring the two painters in, perhaps, an equal degree, his sympathies inclined towards Delacroix.

The picture was to glow with colour. Seven months sufficed for its execution. As in the case of Suzanne, when the picture was done he called in the two masters. Delacroix was the first to come this time. He was enchanted; and had no critical remarks to make to the young man, whom he overwhelmed with congratulations.

Next day, M. Ingres arrived in his turn, uttered a kind of growl, recoiled as though a reflection in a mirror had struck his eyes; gradually his growls change to reproaches: it was ingratitude, heresy, apostasy! Ingres went out furious, cursing the renegade. This had been the ambition of the two young people for a long time; but their grandparents would never consent to let these young folk of twenty-one and seventeen, thirty-eight years of age all told, travel; and without the leave of their grandparents, who held the purse-strings, how could they travel?

There is a Providence who looks after travellers! As in the case of Delacroix, the picturesque setting of Suzanne pleased him; he wanted to put Suzanne in his bedroom alcove. They could go round the world five times with that! So they ran off to Italy as they had run away to Holland, taking a travelling carriage to Lyons, crossing Mont Cenis and reaching Rome in twenty-one days.

The two latter desires arose from simple curiosity; the first from sentiment: Marie Monchablon was a cousin of General Leclerc, first husband of the Princess Borghese. There was, therefore, relationship with the Napoleon family, although obviously very distant; but relationships go much further back than that in Corsica! Horace Vernet was director of the school of painting in Rome.

The first visit of the two artists was naturally to Horace Vernet; but, on leaving his house, there was only the Monte Pincio to cross, the gate del Popolo to pass and they were in the villa Borghese. She smiled, called to mind the two good-looking young people she had bowed to in the garden of the villa Borghese and asked that they should be presented to her on the following day. This strange prophecy was realised!

After this they began seriously to set to work. From Rome the lovers started for Naples. From Naples they returned to Florence. Corpus Domini. Meanwhile, the young couple took hasty excursions into the country and, as the parents could not leave little Albert behind, they put him in a basket which a man carried on his head. This was the son of Corpus Domini, and bearing this title, no goat-herd but would give him of her milk. You only had to dip the pen in the water-jug, stream or river, or simply in your mouth, to write with water or with saliva, and the writing became black as fast as the nib of the pen formed the letters.

It was such a wonderful invention that they decided to start a paper factory under illustrious patronage. This gave the spectators much food for reflection. It would be impossible to use the paper on a rainy day or days when one had a cold or on days when one was tearful.

The factory idea was renounced. They reached Magnesia near the Mendere river and began to dig in the ground. He made a sketch in the full heat of the midday sun [Pg 27] and, during his work, got one of those attacks of sunstroke that are so dangerous in the East. Brain fever ensued: he was far from all aid; there were only bad Greek doctors near him, of the type that killed Byron. Delirium set in by the third day; on the fifth, he died laughing and singing, unconscious that he was dying.

All the Greek clergy in Constantinople came to pay respect to the body of the poor traveller, who had died at twenty-eight years of age, far away from his friends, his family and his country! Twenty-eight years of age! Compare that age with what he had done! The body was carried away on the back of a camel. There, as here, everybody loved him. People of all lands and in every kind of costume followed the procession.

All the French ships in the roadstead carried their flags at half-mast and their ensigns of mourning. The whole staff of the embassy came out to meet the body at the gate of Constantinople, and a procession of over three thousand persons followed it to the French church.

There he lies, sleeping, like Ophelia, still smiling and singing! Delicate and sarcastic smile, eyes sparkling with intelligence, a satirical mouth, short figure and large heart and a delightful tincture of melancholy perceptible everywhere—that is your portrait, dear Grandville! I begin to have as many friends below ground as above; come to me! You will remember, dear Grandville, when I went to call upon you in your garret in the rue des Petits-Augustins, a garret from whence I never came out without carrying away with me some wonderful sketches?

What good long talks we had! What fine perceptions! I did not think of asking you then where you came from, neither where you were going; you smiled sadly at life, at the future; you had had some sadness forced out from the depths of your heart. That which I did not think to ask of the artist when he was full of life, energy and health, I now ask of him when he is dead and laid in the grave.

You have forgotten, you say, dear Grandville? I understand that. But there is one of your friends, a man of heart and of talent who has not forgotten: take Charles Blanc, and add to what he has forgotten that which you yourself can remember. Your life was too uninteresting, you say? Very well, but [Pg 29] the public takes as much interest in the humble vicar of Wakefield in his village parish as in the brilliant Ralegh at the court of the proud Elizabeth—You will try to remember?

Grandville was born at Nancy. He was the successor, compatriot, one might almost say the pupil, of Callot. The grandfather was called Grandville. This child, who was to create a world of his own, half animal, half human, who was to explain the scent of flowers by making the flower the mere external covering of woman, who, by means of imagery drawn from human life, was to endow the stars with those beauteous eyes which flash amidst the darkness and with which they are supposed to gaze upon the earth, this child, I say, was born on 13 September He was born so weak that it was thought for a moment he was only born to die, but his mother took him in her arms and hid him so completely in her heart, that Death, who was looking for him, passed by and saw him not.

But the child saw Death, and that is why he has since then painted him so accurately. As a youth, he was taciturn but observant, watching everything with those large melancholy eyes of his, which seemed as though they were looking for and finding in everything some side unknown and invisible to other eyes.

It is this side which he has shown in all beings and created things, from the giant to the ant, from man to mollusc, from the star down to the flower. Others find fault with the world as the good God has made it, but, powerless to refashion it, they rest satisfied with [Pg 30] railing at it; Grandville not only did not scoff at it, but even re-created one of his own.

At twelve he entered the school at Nancy, and he left at fourteen. What did Latin, Greek or even French matter to him? He had a language of his own, which he talked in low tones to that invisible master whom we call genius, a language which, later, he was to speak aloud to the whole of creation. When I went to see Grandville and found him holding a lizard in his hand, whistling to a canary in its cage or crumbling bread in a bowl of red fishes, I was always tempted to ask him: "Come, what does the fish, canary or lizard say to you?

Grandville began to draw at fourteen; I am mistaken, he had always drawn. So, one day, the masters showed these exercise-books to his father. They meant them to be the means of getting the child a scolding; but the father saw more than the masters did: they only saw an indifferent Latin scholar; the father saw a great artist.

All saw correctly, but each turned his back and looked in an opposite direction from that of the others. Grandville was from that day introduced into his father's studio, and had the right to make sketches without being obliged to do exercises and translations. When a sitter came to sit for a miniature in M. Grandville's studio, he sat both to father and son. The sitter, however, only saw the work of the father because that was a finished, varnished and touched-up portrait, whilst the son's was a beautiful and excellent caricature, at which the father would laugh heartily when the sitter was gone, but which he advised his son to hide deep among his drawings, wondering each time how it was that the man's face had some likeness to the head of an animal.

It was hard to give up his boy, even to a brother artist; and yet Grandville's father knew very well that one cannot become a great artist unless one goes out into the great centres of civilisation. He adopted a middle course, which appeased his conscience and comforted his heart. He promised to send the boy to Paris.

Six months went by before this promise was put into execution; at last, recognising that the lad was wasting time in the provinces, the father made up his mind. A hundred crowns were put into one of the young artist's pockets, a letter to a cousin in the other, and he was commended to the care of the conductor of a diligence; thus the great man of the coming future started for Paris.

Well, just as M. We know others, too, besides M. Meanwhile, Hippolyte Lecomte came in. We do not know whether Hippolyte Lecomte has, like M. It was exactly what the young man wanted, and he passed from M. Mansion's studio to that of Lecomte. And, M. Mansion's pupil kept an old grudge against his master.

This was what occasioned it—. With his delightful imagination, which was as picturesque when he was a child as when a man, Grandville had invented a game with fifty-two cards. Mansion thought this game so remarkable that he fathered it under his own name with the title of La Sibylle des salons. I once saw the game at Grandville's, when he was in a good humour and turning over all his drawings; there was something very fantastic about it.

When with Hippolyte Lecomte, there was no longer any question of drawing—he had to paint. But painting was not Grandville's strong point—pencil or pen were his to any extent! He painted, like Callot, with a steel pen. Pencil, pen and style spoke admirably the language of the artist and adequately expressed what he wanted to say! Then, suddenly, lithography comes on the scenes. Grandville is attracted to, looks at and examines the process, utters a cry of delight, and feels that this is what he must do.

Callot had substituted in his engravings the spirit varnish of musical instrument-makers for soft varnishes. I also lived in another sort of garret; the twenty-five francs which, upon Oudard's entreaty, M. And the painter's studio was a gathering-place for talks. There, and in the adjacent studios, were to be found Philippon, who was to found La Caricature and, later, his brother, who founded Le Journal pour rire ; Ricourt, the persistent maker of improbable stories; Horeau, the architect; Huet, Forest, Renou.

When they were flush of money they drank beer; on other days they were content to smoke, shout, declaim and laugh. Grandville laughed, declaimed, shouted, smoked, and drank but little. He remained seated at a table, a sheet of paper before him, pen or pencil in hand, smiling betimes, but everlastingly drawing. What did he draw? He himself never knew. A fancy bordering on the nonsensical guided his pencil. Birds with monkeys' heads, monkeys with fishes' heads, the faces of bipeds on the bodies of quadrupeds: a more grotesque world than Callot's temptations or Breughel's sportive demons, [Pg 34] When two hours had gone by, full of laughter, noise and smoke for the others, Grandville had drawn from his brain, as from some fanciful circle, a whole new creation, which certainly belonged as much to him as that which was destroyed by the Flood belonged to God.

It was all very exquisite, very clever, very enchanting; and expressed very clearly what it wished to interpret; the eyes and gestures speaking such a droll language that, by the time one had to leave them, one had always spent upwards of half an hour or an hour looking at them, trying to discover the meaning of them—improvised illustrations of stories unknown by Hoffmann. Then came Grandville had offered that my portrait should be one of the first; he was one of the first to come and mount his platform, smoothing out his panel on a folding ladder and sketching the parts that reached above the height of the door.

Two months afterwards, I went on a voyage. Did I see him again? I have my doubts. Only news of his tremendous works reached me. Then, in the midst of all these merry figures which fell from his pencil and pen came heartrending and bitter sorrows; his wife and three children died one after the other; when the last died, he himself fell ill. It was as though the voices of his four beloved ones were calling him to them.

His conversation changed in character; it became more elevated; no more studio laughter or youthful joking was to be heard. He talked of that future life towards which he was going, of that immortality of the soul of which he was to know the [Pg 35] secret; he soared into purest ether and floated on the most transparent clouds.

On 14 March , he became insane; and he died three days later in the house of Dr. Voisin, at Vauvres. Grandville disappeared. Did he mount up to heaven on the rays of one of those stars with the faces of women, to whom he made love?

Did he lie down to sleep in the tomb, to listen, during the sleep of death, to the growing of those women to whom he had given the stems of flowers? This secret my two dear and excellent friends who died on the same day—4 August —Tony Johannot and Alfred d'Orsay, would assuredly have told me if it had been permitted to them.

What poetry of sorrow could, then, be adequate to express the feelings of my heart the morning I woke to receive two such letters as these? I went to Tony Johannot's house yesterday with your letter, to ask him if he could undertake the vignettes for Isaac Laquedem, and they said to me: 'Sir, he has just died!

I met him the day before yesterday and we made an appointment for to-day. This single syllable felt like the tolling of a bell. It awoke the same kind of vibration in my heart. Tony Johannot is dead! If people die like this, one ought never to leave those one loves. Come back at once to Paris or I shall start for Brussels. DUMAS , fils". One of the last names he uttered was yours, for one of his last projects was to renew the lease of your shooting, which he much enjoyed last year.

The funeral will take place the day after to-morrow at Chambourcy. Come, if my letter reaches you in time! Another time I will tell you the whole of d'Orsay's history, d'Orsay the gentleman, the man of fashion, the artist, and, above all, the man of kindly heart; and I shall certainly not have room in one chapter to do that.

For the present, let us restrict ourselves to Tony Johannot, the one among the four dead men whose lives I am relating with whom I was the most intimate. He was born in , in the little town of Offenbach, as was his brother; I have given the history of his parents and of his early days in relating that of Alfred. He must, therefore, appear before our readers as a young man in the same frame as Alfred; it was in this way, indeed, that the Artiste published them in its two excellent portraits of those twin-geniuses of art.

Tony was delightful in those days, when about thirty years old: a clear, fresh complexion which a woman might have envied, short, curly hair, a dark moustache, small, but bright, intelligent and sparkling eyes, medium height in figure but wonderfully well-proportioned. Like Alfred, he was silent; but he was not as taciturn: his melancholy never went so far as depression: he was a man of few words and never launched out into a long sentence, but what he said always showed delicacy of perception and flashes of wit.

Finally, his talent reflected his character like a mirror, and any one not knowing him could have formed a perfectly correct idea [Pg 38] of him from his drawings, vignettes and pictures. The first time I saw him, if I remember rightly, was at the house of our dear good friend, Nodier.

Nodier was very fond of both of the brothers. Tony brought a lovely water-colour to Marie Nodier. I can see it now: it represented a woman being murdered, either a Desdemona or a Vanina d'Ornano. It was meant for Marie's album. We drew together at once without hesitation, as if our two hearts had been in search of one another for twenty-five years; we were the same age, almost, he a little younger than I.

I have related in these Memoirs that we went through the Rambouillet campaign side by side and that we returned from it together. A score of times he had tried to make a portrait sketch of me; a score of times he had erased the paper clean, rubbed off the wood, scratched the paint off the canvas, dissatisfied with his work.

It was in vain I told him it was a good likeness. How can one make a likeness of a man who is not like himself? Then, to compensate me he would turn over his portfolios and give me a charming drawing of Minna et Brenda, or a lovely sketch of the Last of the Mohicans. The chief merit of the character of Tony Johannot and the particular note of his talent was that gift of heaven bestowed specially on flowers, birds and women—charm.

Tony even delighted his critics. His colour was, perhaps, a trifle monotonous, but it was cheerful, light and silvery in tone. His women were all like one another, Virginie and Brenda, Diana Vernon and Ophelia; what did it matter since they were all young and beautiful and gracious and chaste? The daughters of the poets, to whatever country they belong, have all one and the same father-genius.

Now who can reproach sisters for bearing a family likeness? Other illustrators found fault with Tony for monopolising every book as they blamed me for monopolising every newspaper. Where, then, are the fancies and whims which are to succeed this rage?

Where is the art which is to replace this trade? So far as I am concerned, since they have brought the same reproach of monopolising against me, and an occasion offers to say a word on this subject, I will say it without circumlocution. I have but one regret: it is that I cannot divert myself from my gigantic work by reading my own books; distract my thoughts by letting me read yours, and I assure you it will be a good thing for both me and yourselves and, perhaps, even better for you than for me.

Tony did as I did; he first of all worked at the rate of six hours a day, then eight, then ten, then twelve, then fifteen: work is like the intoxication of hashish and of [Pg 40] opium: it creates a fictitious life inside real life, so full of delicious dreams and adorable hallucinations that one ends by preferring the fictitious life to the real one.

Tony then worked fifteen hours a day—which speaks for itself. Three or four years previously, Tony's friends had been alarmed by a thing which, in spite of the fear of the doctors, seemed nevertheless quite impossible. He had been threatened with pulmonary phthisis.

Nothing could have been more solidly constructed, it must be said, than Tony Johannot's chest, and, allowing for immoderate ambition, never were lungs more commodiously situated for fulfilling their functions; so Tony's friends did not feel anxious. He coughed, spat a little blood, took a course of treatment and got better.

He had not stopped working. Work is a factor of health in the case of all who are producers. He was struck by a crushing attack of apoplexy. On 4 August , he died. The twofold news came too late: I could neither follow d'Orsay to [Pg 41] the cemetery of Chambourcy, nor follow Tony Johannot to the cemetery of Montmartre.

There it is that the creator of many charming vignettes, many fascinating pictures, sleeps in the vault where his two brothers Charles and Alfred had preceded him. Sequel to the preparations for my ball—Oil and distemper —Inconveniences of working at night—How Delacroix did his task —The ball—Serious men—La Fayette and Beauchene—Variety of costumes—The invalid and the undertaker's man—The last galop—A political play—A moral play.

Let us return from painters to paintings. We did not reckon on him, but he had foreseen what might happen; one panel had been left blank and this was given to him on which to make a scene from La Esmeralda. Delacroix alone failed to answer to the appeal: they wanted to dispose of his panel, but I answered for him. It was very diverting to see the start for this steeplechase between ten painters of equal merit.

Each of them, without, apparently, watching his neighbour, followed with his eyes first the charcoal then the paint-brush. But the painters of large canvases soon got into the way of it. Jadin and Decamps discovered wonderful tones in this new method of execution, and declared they never wanted to paint in anything again but distemper. Grandville drew with red chalk, charcoal and Spanish white chalk, and produced prodigious effects with these three crayons. We waited with curiosity for Delacroix, whose facility of execution has become proverbial.

As I have said, only the two Johannots were behindhand. They knew they would not be finished if they did not work at night. Consequently, whilst others played, smoked and gossiped, both continued their day's work when night came, rejoicing in the tones given them by the light, and the superiority of lamplight to that of day, for painting intended to be seen by lamplight.

They did not stop working till midnight, but they caught up with the others by so doing. Next day, when light broke, Alfred and Tony uttered cries of despair: by lamplight they had mistaken yellow for white and white for yellow, green for blue and blue for green. The two pictures looked like huge omelettes aux fines herbes.

He had but to glance at the two pictures to guess what had happened. Indeed, it was more specially in the sky that the error had been committed. He took up the brushes and with broad, vigorous, powerful strokes he repainted the skies of both pictures in one minute: the one calm, serene and azure, [Pg 44] leaving a glimpse of the splendours of Dante's paradise through the blue of the firmament; the other low, cloudy, charged with electricity, ready to burst forth into lightning flashes.

All the young painters learnt in an instant the secrets of decoration, which they had been hours groping after on the previous day. Nobody cared about working at night. There was no more news of Delacroix than if he had never existed. On the night of the second day I sent to him to ask if he remembered that the ball was fixed for the next day. He sent reply that I need not be anxious and he would come at breakfast-time next morning. Work began with the dawn next day.

Most of the workers, moreover, had their task three-quarters finished. Louis Boulanger had no more than three or four hours' work. Decamps was putting the last touches to his Debureau, and Jadin to his poppies and corn-flowers; Grandville was at work on his door tops, when, as he had promised, Delacroix arrived.

You should have told me: I would have come a month ago. Then, as they were going to breakfast, he breakfasted too. What would you like me to stick up there? And, without taking off his little black coat which clung closely to his body, without turning up his sleeves or taking off his cuffs, or putting on a blouse or cotton jacket, Delacroix began by taking his charcoal and, in three or four strokes, he had drawn the horse; in five or six, the cavalier; in seven or eight, the battlefield, dead, dying and fugitives included; then, making sufficient out of this rough sketch to be intelligible to himself, he took up brushes and began to paint.

And, in a flash, as if one had unveiled a canvas, one saw appear under his hand, first a cavalier, bleeding, injured and wounded, half dragged by his horse, who was as hurt as himself, holding on by the mere support of his stirrups, and leaning on his long lance; round him, in front and behind him, the dead in heaps; by the riverside, the wounded trying to put their lips to the water, and leaving tracks of blood behind them; as far as the eye could see, away towards the horizon stretched the battlefield, ruthless and terrible; above it all, in a horizon made dense by the vapour of blood, a sun was setting like a red buckler in a forge; then, finally, a blue sky which, as it melted away into the distance, became an indefinable shade of green, with rosy clouds on it like the down of an ibis.

The whole [Pg 46] thing was wonderful to see: a circle gathered round the master and each one of the artists left his task to come and clap his hands without jealousy or envy at the new Rubens, who improvised both composition and execution as he went on. It was finished in two or three hours' time. At five that afternoon, owing to a large fire, all was dry and they could place the forms against the walls. The ball had created an enormous stir. I had invited nearly all the artists in Paris; those I had forgotten wrote to remind me of their existence.

Many society women had done the same, but they asked to be allowed to come masked: it was an impertinence towards other women and I left it to the responsibility of those who had offered it. It was a fancy dress ball, but not a masked one; the order was strict, and I hired two dozen dominoes for the use of impostors, whoever they might be, who attempted to introduce themselves in contraband dress.

Three hundred bottles of Bordeaux were put down to warm, three hundred bottles of Burgundy were cooling, five hundred bottles of champagne were on ice. The mistress of the house, a very handsome person, with dark hair and blue eyes, was in a velvet dress, with a starched collarette, and the black felt hat with black feathers of Helena Formann, Rubens's second wife. Two orchestras had been set up in each suite of rooms, in such a [Pg 47] way that, at a given moment, they could both play the same air, and the galop could be heard throughout the five rooms and the hall.

At midnight, these five rooms afforded a wonderful spectacle. Everybody had taken up the idea with the exception of those who styled themselves staid men; every one had come in fancy dress; but it was in vain that the serious-minded men pleaded their seriousness; no attention whatever was paid to it; they were compelled to clothe themselves in dominoes of the quietest colours. This man had pressed the hand of Washington, had compelled Marat to hide in caves, had struggled against Mirabeau, had lost his popularity in saving the life of the queen, and on 6 October had said to a royalty of ten centuries old: "Bow thyself before that royalty which yesterday was called the people!

He was, in fact, the subject of astonishment and admiration for all those entrancing beings who saw, touched and spoke to him for the first time, who brought back to him his younger days; he looked at them earnestly, gave both his hands to them and responded with the most polite and courteous words to all the pretty speeches the charming queens of the Paris theatres addressed to him. You recollect your amazement in finding him simple and gentle, coquettish and gallant, witty and deferential, as he had been forty years before at the balls of Versailles and the Trianon?

So, General La Fayette, recognising him, said with a charming smile—. The sitting-room presented the most picturesque appearance. It was the court of the Valois complete. Georges, who had regained the beauty of her best days, had taken the costume of a Nettuno peasant-girl, and Madame Paradol wore that of Anne of Austria. Rose Dupuis had one like Lady Rochester. Noblet was in harlequin's dress; Javureck was a Turkish slave-girl.

Rossini had taken the costume of Figaro, and vied in popularity with La Fayette. Moyne, our poor Moyne! Several droll incidents enlivened the evening. Tissot could not stand it and, in half an hour's time, he left. At one time, there were seven hundred persons present. We had supper at three in the morning. The two rooms of the empty flat on my landing were converted into a dining-room.

Wonderful to relate there was enough for everybody to eat and to drink! I have often thought since of giving a second ball like that one, but it always seemed to me that it would be quite impossible. They had taken for their hero the mad Emperor, whom, six years later, I tried in my turn to put on to the stage—Caligula. There was scarcely any plot in the play; its principal merit was that which was attached to its subtitle: Les Romains chez eux.

Indeed, this was the first time people had seen the toga worn, and buskins on the feet, and the speech, actions, and eating as had been the case in real life. The subject was the death of Caligula [Pg 51] and the succession of Claudius to the throne. Unfortunately for the longevity of the play, it contained a scene which seemed to imply a disrespectful allusion to the leader of the Government.

It was the third scene of the last act. One soldier represented Claudius as being perfectly suitable for the Romans, because he was big, fat and stupid. It is impossible to describe the effect which this big, fat and stupid produced; there was at that period a terrible reaction against Louis-Philippe. The insurrection of the month of June still brooded upon all spirits.

They applied these three epithets to the head of the Government, doing him the justice which he was at any rate to deserve sixteen or seventeen years later. I had not been present at the first performance. I succeeded, after great difficulty, in getting a seat at the second.

And the most curious thing was that nobody, neither manager nor authors, counted much on the work, which was readily to be seen by the way in which it was mounted. Apart from Lockroy and Provost, the whole play was distributed amongst what is called in theatrical parlance la troupe de fer-blanc "a fit-up crowd".

Seventeen days later the Porte-Saint-Martin played a piece which was to cause a scandal of another order. It was called: Dix ans de la vie d'une femme, ou les mauvais conseils. The leading part was played by Dorval. The play of Dix ans de la vie d'une femme —the first manuscript at least—was by a young man of thirty or so, named Ferrier. Harel, while reading it, had seen in it a sequel to Joueur and had coupled Ferrier with Scribe.

Something like eighteen years later, we were discussing, at the Council of State, before the commission formed to prepare the law connected with theatres the question of dramatic censorship and theatrical liberty, and, on this head, I heard Scribe attack immoral literature more violently than was usual with him.

He demanded a censorship which should be a salutary check to keep talent from the excesses of all kinds to which it was too apt to surrender itself. I allowed myself to interrupt the austere orator, and addressed this question laughingly so that it could be heard all over the room.

Scribe replied in the same laughing spirit in which he had been attacked. Read the work again and you will see it would have been difficult for him to reply otherwise. You shall judge for yourselves. We have so often seen our works and those of the Romantic school taxed with immorality by people who uphold M.

Scribe as a moral author, that it must really be permitted us to repeat the accusation here and to show, play in hand, how far they pushed the scandal at times in the opposite camp. The wide point of view which the outline of these Memoirs embraces makes us hope that such an exposition may not be looked upon as a digression.

At all events, those of our readers who think it irrelevant are quite at liberty to pass over the following chapter. This is what Dix ans de la vie d'une femme was like. Now such bad influences were not wanting in her case. Of a subject young wives and girls are eternally talking about—Love. There is but one disquieting element in that love—the character of the recipient is inclined to melancholy. Meanwhile, M. Darcey arrives.

At the first words he [Pg 54] pronounces, one can recognise that he is an excellent man, half father, half husband; his wife, whom he adores, will have the sunny side of life; only the feathers, silks and velvets of married life if she will but obey his orders, or rather, accede to her husband's wishes, which are very simple and reasonable.

He wishes her to cease from seeing two persons who are of more than equivocal antecedents, whose conduct and ways are not consistent with the behaviour of a respectable woman, or with the duties of the mother of a family. Her husband goes out, called away from home on business which will detain him half the day; Clarisse goes to attend to household matters, and Madame Darcey stays alone.

Achille Grosbois have come. Her first impulse is to recall the promise she has made to her husband; the second, to put it on one side. Enter these ladies and M. Furthermore, as though they had expected the affront that had been offered them, they prepare their revenge: M. Rodolphe is to come. Rodolphe and invites him to dinner with her friends and M.

Achille Grosbois. And the effect M. Darcey intended to produce by his driver and carriage and pair is completely lost. Sophie, M. Achille, M. Rodolphe and Clarisse remain together. Conversation is difficult between a virtuous young girl and such creatures; but wait, Sophie means to keep up the conversation. She thanks Clarisse for a little sum the latter has given her. Sophie Marini had undertaken to collect money as a charitable lady, and fulfils, by so doing, a pious duty.

For what had this person been collecting? Oh, that is a perfectly simple [Pg 56] matter: for a young girl who has been deserted by a shameful seducer. Et, certainement, ce Valdeja aurait bien pu She thinks she will have a meal prepared in the pavilion in the park. The whole company then go out to luncheon. Some minutes later, M. Darcey returns, and he learns that the best wines from his cellar, and the finest fruits from his garden are being served to entertain M.

Achille and M. Ma foi! Non, je ne les amie pas; et, quand ils s'introduisent chez moi regardant les deux dames , dans quelque compagnie qu'ils se trouvent, je les chasse sans balancer. Leur voiture est sur la route de Paris Maintenant, madame, voulez-vous que nous passions au salon? A wife is lost, but without any efforts to save herself! Valdeja has arrived from Russia; he is gloomier, more bitter, more averse to women than ever.

A young girl who loved him, whom he was counting upon marrying, who was almost his betrothed, has written to him through her father that she does not love him, and could not love him. Hence, Valdeja's sadness, his vow to be avenged on other women for the sufferings this one has caused him. Darcey does not know who the young girl is: an extraordinary thing, considering the degree of intimacy between himself and Valdeja, and that that young girl is his sister-in-law.

But to proceed! She exercises that insincere tenderness towards her husband, that assiduity which is affected by deceitful women. At the first words, Valdeja is not taken in by it. Here we see Valdeja informed that Clarisse is going to be married, as she has been told that Valdeja had been unfaithful to her. The eagerness with which she takes advantage of this liberty rouses Valdeja's suspicions, and under pretext of having to make various visits, a letter from a Russian prince to be handed to a M.

Laferrier, and so on, he goes out at a venture to follow Madame Darcey, when they announce the arrival of Clarisse. Clarisse comes in; her father has nothing whatever the matter with him! He needs a hundred thousand crowns to save him. Valdeja offers them. But Darcey will not allow a stranger to pay the debts of his family: he puts the hundred thousand crowns at the disposition of Clarisse's father.

Consult the archives of the State Commission oh this point. Let us return to our drama. The stage represents an elegant boudoir in the house of Madame Laferrier. You will admit that I was not so far wrong in calling Madame Laferrier a disreputable woman. There is, I think, another name to designate women who lend their boudoirs to friends when the latter tell their husbands that their fathers are dying in order to obtain liberty to go and meet their lovers. But set your mind at rest.

True, the quarrel is sufficiently disgraceful in itself. L'ouvrant pour le regarder. Le portrait de mademoiselle Anastasie! One would have thought after the impertinences M. Perhaps, though, this might have happened, if the name of Valdeja had not been pronounced. This incident gives another turn to the conversation. On ne dit pas combien il y avait de couverts. She has been hunting for her mistress for six hours past: at Rodolphe's and at Madame Marini's house. Clarisse coming to the house has revealed all: her father is not ill, and she never wrote!

What is to be done? Je vous envoie mon chapeau et mon mouchoir. Vous me les renverrez demain par votre femme de chambre. Why in the room adjoining that boudoir we ask? Why, of course, so that the gentleman can hear what is going to be said; there is no deeper motive behind it than that! Valdeja enters behind the two women, brought in by a servant.

What does Valdeja think of doing now? But, do not be uneasy, when she returns she will bring them back, and this will give occasion to a curious scene, as you are about to hear. Valdeja, who speaks French perfectly, although a foreigner, for he is a Spaniard, has been charged by Prince Krimikoff with a letter for M.

This letter begins the affair. So they chat about Prince Krimikoff. Parce que je sais vos heures intimes avec lui, ce n'est pas une raison pour les publier. Parce qu'on arrive du fond de la Russie, nous croyez-vous en dehors de la civilisation? Valdeja continues:. It is, indeed, unfortunate that it is for Madame Laferrier and not for M.

Laferrier; for, although they talk much about it, the spectators do not see M. Laferrier at all. It would certainly be interesting to see the husband who would adapt himself to such a wife! Listen carefully and follow the turn the conversation is going to take. What, then, is the snare Prince Krimikoff has laid for Madame Laferrier? The author does not say. But it must be the same order of snare which Valdeja sets for her.

Let us admit that she has naturally a great talent for allowing herself to be caught in a trap. Qu'est-ce que c'est que vertueuse? Valdeja goes on, raising his tones:. Je ne connais qu'un enseignement respectable, c'est celui de nos passions. On entend le bruit d'une voiture. C'est mon mari! Laferrier after all! The noise of the carriage, which would have disturbed anybody else, helps Valdeja, on the contrary, to wind up the scene, which we should agree was becoming difficult between people who have only just met for the first time, one of whom hates and despises the other.

Ce mouchoir, qui est le votre The curtain falls. Let us now see what happens in the third act. In the first scene of the third act, we are at Valdeja's rooms in a furnished house. He is alone, seated at a table, holding in his hand the handkerchief which he has taken from Madame Laferrier.

He waits for his moujik Mourawieff. Mourawieff has been deputed by Valdeja to procure the letters and portrait artfully. Perhaps Valdeja, as a civilised being, ought to have lent assistance to the skill of a moujik only arrived in Paris the previous day, who, consequently, could not be very much up to date in French manners; but he has overlooked this detail, which, as it concerns the reputation [Pg 67] of the wife of a friend, deserves, perhaps, that some attention should be paid to the matter.

The consequence is that Mourawieff acts as cunningly as a moujik; he waited for Rodolphe's servant at the door of No. Sylvestre falls, loosing letters and portrait. Mourawieff takes possession of them and arrives, running. Do not let us complain: Mourawieff's clumsiness is a skilful move on the part of the author and will give us an excellent scene presently.

I say presently, because, before it, there is one which we do not consider very happy—from the moral point of view be it understood: we are not concerning ourselves here, be careful to notice, with the literary merits of the drama. No, we will imagine ourselves Academicians—what more can you desire? The unfortunate scene is that where Valdeja opens the packet and reads the letters addressed to M.

Rodolphe by his friend's wife. The perusal of them confirms him in the resolution to leave his friend in ignorance of everything; but he takes upon himself to avenge that friend's honour and to fight a duel with Rodolphe. He therefore takes a brace of pistols and a couple of duelling swords and makes himself ready to go in search of Rodolphe at 71 rue de Provence. He meets the man he is looking for on the threshold of his door. Rodolphe has also, like Valdeja, a brace of pistols in his hands and two swords under his arm.

That Valdeja, who probably wishes a duel without witnesses, should take pistols and swords and go armed [Pg 68] like a Malbrouk on his way to the war, in search of the man of whom he has to demand the vindication of a friend's honour, is conceivable enough in all conscience. But that Rodolphe, who has none of these motives, instead of sending his seconds as is done between well-bred people, should come himself and go up the stairs with sword under his arm and pistols in hand, instead of leaving all the weapons in his carriage, is altogether senseless.

No matter, for, as we have already said, we are not fishing in those waters. The scene containing this improbable incident is original and well drawn; that is sufficient. The two young people agree to fight with pistols. It is Rodolphe who suggests the weapon. Both go out. They bless Darcey. Clarisse feels that of a sister for him, the tenderness of a friend, but she will never be in love with him.

Albert is resigned; enumerating Clarisse's excellent qualities, he [Pg 69] thinks he will be happy in his lot. For a long time she has not been to her father's house, but, invited by him as well as her husband to a little family gathering, she complies with the invitation. Behind her enters M. As for M. As they are wondering about his coming, the door opens and he enters pale and constrained.

Now begins a scene, dramatic in its simple domesticity. Darcey has found his wife's letters. The author does not tell us how, for these letters cannot have been put in his way for two hours after the departure of Valdeja; which leads us to surmise that, Valdeja not having returned within two hours, he must be dead. Never mind by what means Darcey has discovered the letters; he has them, and that is the chief point, and he comes as before a family tribunal to ask each member what is the punishment a friend of his ought to inflict on a wife who has deceived him.

Car, cet homme, c'est moi! Cette femme, c'est votre fille! Nothing further remains for Darcey to do but to be avenged on Rodolphe; but, as one might expect, he has been killed by Valdeja. She prefers that humiliation to becoming the mistress of an Italian banker named Rialto. You can guess the scene: the pen is flung across the [Pg 71] table, the paper upon which the first letters were already traced is torn up; the proposals of Rialto are accepted. The shameful treaty bears the stamp of self-sacrifice.

Albert Melville has lost his position in the offices of the Exchequer; Rialto, who is at the head of all the loans, gets him restored to it and Albert Melville marries Clarisse. What is the reason for this anxiety for the welfare of Albert Melville and Clarisse on the part of the three women?

Stop a minute! The marriage of these two young people will cause Valdeja to give way to despair. Whereupon, Valdeja comes forward. He comes on behalf of Darcey, whose kindness of heart is touched by the physical sufferings of the woman: as woman, not as his wife. Valdeja is more cheerful than usual: he smiles in spite of himself at the contretemps which destroys the prospect of the marriage of Albert and Clarisse for ever.

It is not very probable that all this could take place in ten minutes; but one knows that actual times does not exist on the stage. When Valdeja learns that it is the hatred of the three women which has just destroyed his last hope, he renews his oath of hatred, which they listen to with laughter. The curtain falls upon that oath. It rises upon a pretty garden with a summer-house on the left. She has all she wants, even to the lover of her heart's desire. This lover's name is M.

Rialto promises to buy her houses, carriages and horses, and she loathes him. Hippolyte gives her a simple bouquet and she worships him. See him enter upon the scenes. It is evident that if Hippolyte has made the conquest of Madame Darcey, it is an affair of the heart in which her mind has no part whatever. Besides, Hippolyte is grave to solemnity. It is she who begins the conversation. This hilarity, sufficiently ill-timed when confronted with so serious a proposal, does not disconcert Hippolyte in the least.

Rialto is announced. The poor lover might just as well have demanded the hand of the daughter of Democritus. The joke continues for about ten minutes; and then Rialto, whose laughter has suffered several checks, thinks it is time to put a stop to it.

You shall see what happens; and one thing you certainly will not have expected! Un mot suffira. We think we ought to spare our readers, especially our feminine ones, the rest of the scene. This may, indeed, be nature, as they say in studio terms; but it is vile nature!

But do not be anxious, when I come to that, I will deal with myself severely! At the fifth act, we find ourselves in a mean room of wretched appearance. The two women recognise one another. It is Valdeja who induced M. Petersburg has not made much progress. She has no hope left except in her sister, to whom she has written.

Her husband has forbidden her to see her sister; but, at two o'clock, hidden by a cloak, she will come on foot. She sees in it a means of injuring Clarisse and will meditate upon it.

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A place means finishing either first, or in one of a number of places — typically 2 nd , 3 rd or 4 th. Make sure you check the place terms before making your bet. The place terms for your bet include, the number of places the bookmaker will pay out on, and the fraction of the odds you will get if the horse does place.

A Rule 4 deduction occurs when the winnings of your bet are reduced due to another horse being withdrawn from the race after your bet has been placed. The odds shown on any horse are based on all horses competing. If one backs out, the odds will change — even if you have already placed your bet. Unfortunately, if this happens the odds are going to get shorter. So your potential winnings will go down. The amount you can expect to have deducted from your winnings due to a Rule 4 varies depending on what the odds of the withdrawn horse were at the time it was withdrawn.

The table below shows the deductions which will be taken from your winnings. Note that even if multiple horses withdraw, the deduction will not exceed 90p in the pound. If one of these horses was yours. Your winnings will be reduced depending on the number of horses who have dead-heated. Bet Credits available for use upon settlement of bets to value of qualifying deposit.

Min odds, bet and payment method exclusions apply. Returns exclude Bet Credits stake. Play safe. Free bets valid for 7 days on sports, stakes not returned, restrictions apply. This sports promotion cannot be used in conjunction with another Ladbrokes. New customers only, limited to one per person.

Only deposits made using Cards or Apple Pay will qualify for this promotion. Wagering must be cleared within 60 days. This offer may not be combined with any other offer. New customers only. Free bets valid for 7 days, stake not returned. This sports promotion cannot be used in conjunction with another Coral. New customers only signing up using promo code VAL Bet must be placed in first 7 days of account opening.

Qualifying bet is the first sports pool bet added to the betslip. Ten to Follow bets do not qualify. Totewin will be the qualifying bet when a Totewin and a Toteplace bet are struck at the same time. Our Frequently Asked Questions page answers the most common customer queries relating to attheraces. If the FAQs page doesn't answer your query, please fill in your details below and we'll endeavour to respond as soon as possible. We use cookies to give you the best experience of our website and to keep it free for users, to find out more please read our Privacy Policy.

Forgot your password? Sign up using our simple one-page form and you'll be able to access free video form, tips and exclusive content straight away. Free Bet Calculator Odds Calculator Use our free bet calculator to work out exactly how much profit you stand to win from your selections. Check potential winnings on a single, accumulator, lucky 15 or any other type of bet.

Further terms and conditions may apply. Claim Offer. Dead Heat. Launch Bet Calculator in a Pop-up. Bet Calculator. Sign up to bet Click to View Bonus Code Details. All of the most popular bet types are supported, including Lucky 15, Single, Double, Accumulator, Patent and Round Robin, along with more specialised bets such as Alphabet, Magnificent 7, Union Jack, and the infamous Bookies Nightmare! Configurable bonuses and consolations can be applied to relevant bets, enabling the calculation of the full expected return.

Large Accumulators and perms consisting of up to 20 selections are possible, with full support for each way bets including equally divided , and bets affected by Rule 4, dead heats and joint favourites. As well as calculating the return on your winning bets, the bet calculator can be used before you place your bet, to quickly compare how the return may be affected by different outcomes for each selection.

For example, can you still make a profit if only two of your Lucky 15 selections win? This is an especially powerful tool when used in conjunction with the Maximum Total Stake setting, to equalise the stakes and ensure you stay within your spending limit. Although the Free Bet Calculator is quick and easy to use, even for complex bets, contextual help is available via the information buttons. New visitors may also find the detailed Betting Glossary and Help pages useful.

The Number of Selections value is automatically updated when you switch between different bet types, if the current value is less than the minimum required for the type of bet. The number of selections can be increased in order to create perms or, in the case of Accumulators, to simply extend the size of the Accumulator. The Accumulator Fold Size is automatically updated to reflect changes to the Number of Selections , but you can perm Accumulators simply by reducing this value to the required fold size.

For example, to perm 4-Folds from 6 selections, set the Number of Selections to 6, and then change the Accumulator Fold Size to 4. Most bookmakers add a bonus to certain bet types when a particular criterion is met, such as all winners , but there are often conditions attached. Some bookmakers will apply bonuses to bets containing selections involved in other sports, but they may restrict them to certain markets. Other conditions may also apply, such as minimum odds for each selection, or a minimum unit stake.

Since there are a number of conditions that dictate whether a particular bet qualifies for a bonus, the Include Bonus option makes it easier for you to include, or exclude, the bonus settings from your calculations. This can be done on a bet by bet basis, without needing to alter individual bonus settings, which are otherwise normally fixed for a particular bookmaker.

Simply click the button with the relevant selection number to display a panel containing the less frequently used Rule 4 , Dead Heat and Joint Favourite options. For example, if a selection has lost, then Win Odds is not relevant, so that option is removed from the form. Win Odds can be entered in either Fraction , Decimal or American format, in accordance with the current odds format that can be changed via the Settings.

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Both your potential returns and profit will then be displayed. Both selections must win for you to win. All selections must win for you to get a return. At least 2 selections need to win for you to get a return. A Yankee includes 6 doubles, 4 trebles and one accumulator. At least 2 selections must win for you to get a return. The bet is made up of 3 singles, 3 doubles and 1 treble.

Only one selection needs to win to get a return. One winner gives you a return, although some bookmakers offer bonuses for multiple winners. Again, one winner gives a return. At least 2 of your selections must win for you to get a return. The first is a bet on your chosen horse to win. The second is a bet on your chosen horse to place. Obviously a win means finishing first. A place means finishing either first, or in one of a number of places — typically 2 nd , 3 rd or 4 th.

Make sure you check the place terms before making your bet. The place terms for your bet include, the number of places the bookmaker will pay out on, and the fraction of the odds you will get if the horse does place. A Rule 4 deduction occurs when the winnings of your bet are reduced due to another horse being withdrawn from the race after your bet has been placed. The odds shown on any horse are based on all horses competing. If one backs out, the odds will change — even if you have already placed your bet.

Unfortunately, if this happens the odds are going to get shorter. So your potential winnings will go down. The amount you can expect to have deducted from your winnings due to a Rule 4 varies depending on what the odds of the withdrawn horse were at the time it was withdrawn. The table below shows the deductions which will be taken from your winnings. Note that even if multiple horses withdraw, the deduction will not exceed 90p in the pound.

If one of these horses was yours. Your winnings will be reduced depending on the number of horses who have dead-heated. Bet Credits available for use upon settlement of bets to value of qualifying deposit. Min odds, bet and payment method exclusions apply.

Returns exclude Bet Credits stake. Play safe. Free bets valid for 7 days on sports, stakes not returned, restrictions apply. This sports promotion cannot be used in conjunction with another Ladbrokes.

New customers only, limited to one per person. Only deposits made using Cards or Apple Pay will qualify for this promotion. Wagering must be cleared within 60 days. This offer may not be combined with any other offer. New customers only. Free bets valid for 7 days, stake not returned. This sports promotion cannot be used in conjunction with another Coral. New customers only signing up using promo code VAL Bet must be placed in first 7 days of account opening.

Qualifying bet is the first sports pool bet added to the betslip. Ten to Follow bets do not qualify. Totewin will be the qualifying bet when a Totewin and a Toteplace bet are struck at the same time. As well as calculating the return on your winning bets, the bet calculator can be used before you place your bet, to quickly compare how the return may be affected by different outcomes for each selection.

For example, can you still make a profit if only two of your Lucky 15 selections win? This is an especially powerful tool when used in conjunction with the Maximum Total Stake setting, to equalise the stakes and ensure you stay within your spending limit. Although the Free Bet Calculator is quick and easy to use, even for complex bets, contextual help is available via the information buttons.

New visitors may also find the detailed Betting Glossary and Help pages useful. The Number of Selections value is automatically updated when you switch between different bet types, if the current value is less than the minimum required for the type of bet. The number of selections can be increased in order to create perms or, in the case of Accumulators, to simply extend the size of the Accumulator. The Accumulator Fold Size is automatically updated to reflect changes to the Number of Selections , but you can perm Accumulators simply by reducing this value to the required fold size.

For example, to perm 4-Folds from 6 selections, set the Number of Selections to 6, and then change the Accumulator Fold Size to 4. Most bookmakers add a bonus to certain bet types when a particular criterion is met, such as all winners , but there are often conditions attached. Some bookmakers will apply bonuses to bets containing selections involved in other sports, but they may restrict them to certain markets. Other conditions may also apply, such as minimum odds for each selection, or a minimum unit stake.

Since there are a number of conditions that dictate whether a particular bet qualifies for a bonus, the Include Bonus option makes it easier for you to include, or exclude, the bonus settings from your calculations. This can be done on a bet by bet basis, without needing to alter individual bonus settings, which are otherwise normally fixed for a particular bookmaker. Simply click the button with the relevant selection number to display a panel containing the less frequently used Rule 4 , Dead Heat and Joint Favourite options.

For example, if a selection has lost, then Win Odds is not relevant, so that option is removed from the form. Win Odds can be entered in either Fraction , Decimal or American format, in accordance with the current odds format that can be changed via the Settings. Total - the number of participants finishing in the same position. In the event of a double dead heat you should enter 2, and in the unlikely event of a triple dead heat you should enter 3.

Places - the number of places being offered by your bookmaker for the event in which your selection is taking part.

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Essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides and Ocimum species are potential candidates for management of Exorista sorbillans Wiedemann Diptera: Culicidae , a serious pest of silkworm. Considering that the pure compounds in essential oil may exhibit efficacy against the parasitoid, contact and topical toxicity of 22 essential Carbon dioxide laser absorption spectra of toxic industrial compounds. CO 2 laser absorption cross-section data are reported for acrolein, styrene, ethyl acrylate, trichloroethylene, vinyl bromide, and vinylidene chloride.

These data indicate that sub parts per billion level, interference-free detection limits should be possible for these compounds by the CO 2 laser photoacoustic technique. Photoacoustic detectabilities below 40 ppb should be possible for these compounds in the presence of ambient air concentrations of water vapor and other anticipated interferences.

These compounds are also found not to be important inerference in the detection of toxic hydrazine-based rocket fuels by CO 2 laser spectroscopic techniques. Toxic pollutants emitted from thermal decomposition of phthalimide compounds. Chen Kai; Mackie, John C. Dlugogorski newcastle. Phthalimide PI and tetrahydrophthalimide THPI are two structurally similar compounds extensively used as intermediates for the synthesis of variety of industrial chemicals.

This paper investigates the thermal decomposition of PI and THPI under oxygen rich to oxygen lean conditions, quantifying the production of toxicants and explaining their formation pathways. The density functional theory DFT calculations served to obtain dissociation energies and reaction pathways, to elucidate the reaction mechanism. The oxidation of PI and THPI produced several toxic nitrogen-containing gases and volatile organic compounds , including hydrogen cyanide, isocyanic acid, nitrogen oxides, benzonitrile, maleimide and tentatively identified benzenemethanimine.

The oxidation of THPI produced 2-cyclohexenone, a toxic unsaturated ketone. The results of the present study provide the data for quantitative risk assessments of emissions of toxicants in combustion processes involving PI and THPI.

Electron beam treatment of toxic volatile organic compounds and dioxins. Considerations of wastes based on the reduction, reuse and recycle in daily life are primary measures to conserve our environment, but the control technology is necessary to support these measures.

The electron beam EB process is promising as an advanced purification process having advantages such as a quick treatment of big volume gas, applicability even for very low concentration pollutants as the further purification at the downstream of existing process, and decomposition of pollutants into non- toxic substances by one process.

The EB technology has been developed for treatment of toxic volatile organic compounds VOCs in ventilation gas and dioxins in solid waste incineration flue gas. Toxicity of compounds with endocrine activity in the OECD reproductive toxicity screening test. The issue of endocrine disruption has, in view of human risk assessment, raised the question on whether more sensitive test methods are needed to detect the reproductive toxic properties of xenobiotic compounds with endocrine properties.

We studied six known and alleged endocrine disruptors in an. Ionisation detectors as monitors of toxic compounds in air. Beta particles cause ionisation in gas mixtures. The ions produced provide information on the concentration and identity of trace compounds in ambient air. Modern ionisation detectors use ion mobilities to monitor toxic compounds.

Chemical solvent, phosphororganic compounds , PCB and many other toxins can be detected using ion mobility detectors IMD in the ppb range or lower. Ion mobility detectors have large potential in industry and research because of their sensitivity, specificity, fast response and relatively low cost.

Portable devices and fixed installations are possible. The paper discusses the following topics: 1 ionisation sources in IMD: 63 Ni, 3 H, photoionization and corona discharge, 2 basic principles of ion production, 3 ion collection in IMD, 4 design, gas supply, automatic identification and quantification of IMD data, and 5 selected applications. Advantages and problems with this new type of nuclear analytical instrument are also discussed. Isolation of four phenolic compounds from Mangifera indica L.

Two-step high speed countercurrent chromatography method, following normal phase and elution- extrusion mode of operation by using selected solvent systems, was introduced for phenolic compounds separation. Phenolic compounds including gallic acid, ethyl gallate, ethyl digallate and ellagic acid were separated from the ethanol extract of mango Mangifera indica L.

In the first step, gallic acid of 3. Ethyl digallate of 3. Formation and elution of toxic compounds from sterilized medical products: toxic compound formation from irradiated products. Less than 1 ppm MDA was produced in nonchain-extended thermoplastic PU sterilized by autoclave sterilization. MDA formation at kGy irradiation is a few ppm and compounds other than MDA from potting material was more problematic. Solvent extracts from potting material presented mutagenicity in the absence of metabolic activity.

MDA presented mutagenicity in the presence of metabolic activity, therefore MDA was not the mutagenic trigger. The chemical and biological characteristics of the specific mutagens required to identify in a further study.

Negative promotion of MDA formation and a less presence of mutagen in autoclave sterilized potting material indicated that autoclave sterilization was preferable. All diindolylmethanes DIMs showed moderate to strong inhibitory effects against larval settlement of B. Furthermore, the DIM- and 4- di 1H-indolyl methyl phenol DIM-PhOH -treated larvae completed normal settlement when they were transferred to clean seawater after being exposed to those compounds for 24 h.

Identifying developmental vascular disruptor compounds using a predictive signature and alternative toxicity models. Aluminium toxicity tolerance in crop plants: Present status of research. In this review, the progress of research in identifying aluminium toxicity tolerant genes is discussed. Keywords: Aluminium toxicity , soil acidity, hydroponic screening, Toxic effects on and structure- toxicity relationships of phenylpropanoids, terpenes, and related compounds in Aedes aegypti larvae.

In the search for toxic compounds against Aedes aegypti L. Diptera: Culicidae larvae, a collection of commercially available aromatic and aliphatic diversely substituted compounds were selected and evaluated. To aid future work on the search for larvicidal compounds , the structure- toxicity relationships of this collection have been evaluated. The presence of lipophilic groups results in an overall increase in potency.

In general, the presence of hydroxyl groups resulted in less potent compounds. However, methylation of such hydroxyls led to an overall increase in potency. The most potent compounds showed comparably good larvicidal activity in A. A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity -based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals TICs. Use of herbal dietary supplements by the public is common and has been happening for centuries. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has a limited scope of regulation over marketed herbal dietary supplements, which may contain toxic botanical compounds that pose a public health risk.

While the Food and Drug Administration has made efforts to prohibit the sale of unsafe herbal dietary supplements, numerous reports have proliferated of adverse events due to these supplements. This literature review investigates bioactive plant compounds commonly used in herbal dietary supplements and their relative toxicities. Using primarily the National Library of Medicine journal database and SciFinder for current reports, 47 toxic compounds in 55 species from 46 plant families were found to demonstrate harmful effects due to hepatic, cardiovascular, central nervous system, and digestive system toxicity.

This review further contributes a novel and comprehensive view of toxicity across the botanical dietary market, and investigates the toxicity of the top ten botanical dietary supplements purchased in the United States of America to gauge the exposure risk of toxicity to the public.

The criteria of measuring toxicity in this review plant compound , family, quantity, and toxicity effects across the entire market in the United States, with special attention to those supplements whose exposure to the consumer is maximal, provides a unique contribution to the investigation of botanical supplements. Dietary compounds as modulators of metals and metalloids toxicity. A large part of the population is exposed to metals and metalloids through the diet. Most of the in vivo studies on its toxicokinetics and toxicity are conducted by means of exposure through drinking water or by intragastric or intraperitoneal administration of aqueous standards, and therefore they do not consider the effect of the food matrix on the exposure.

Numerous studies show that some components of the diet can modulate the toxicity of these food contaminants, reducing their effect on a systemic level. The present review provides a compilation of existing information about the effect that certain components of the diet have on the toxicokinetics and toxicity of the metals and metalloids of greatest toxicological importance that are present in food arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury , and of their most toxic chemical species.

Triorganotin as a compound with potential reproductive toxicity in mammals. Full Text Available Organotin compounds are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine-disrupting substances, which cause irreversible sexual abnormality in female mollusks, called "imposex". However, little is known about the capability of triorganotin compounds , such as tributyltin and triphenyltin, to cause disorders in the sexual development and reproductive functions of mammals, including humans and rodents.

Moreover, these compounds can act as potential competitive inhibitors of aromatase enzyme and other steroidogenic enzymes, affecting the reproductive capacity of male and female mammals. In this review, we discuss the cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms by which triorganotin compounds induce adverse effects in the mammalian reproductive function.

Plant-associated bacterial degradation of toxic organic compounds in soil. A number of toxic synthetic organic compounds can contaminate environmental soil through either local e. Increased levels of these toxic organic compounds in the environment have been associated with human health risks including cancer. Plant-associated bacteria, such as endophytic bacteria non-pathogenic bacteria that occur naturally in plants and rhizospheric bacteria bacteria that live on and near the roots of plants , have been shown to contribute to biodegradation of toxic organic compounds in contaminated soil and could have potential for improving phytoremediation.

Endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial degradation of toxic organic compounds either naturally occurring or genetically enhanced in contaminated soil in the environment could have positive implications for human health worldwide and is the subject of this review. The research program that was developed built upon earlier results achieved in the room temperature oxidative decomposition of a chemical warfare agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate DMMP EPA requires that, in addition to the total grams released for the entire dioxin and dioxin-like compounds category, TRI facilities must report the quantity for each individual member on a new Form R Schedule 1.

Compound toxicity screening and structure-activity relationship modeling in Escherichia coli. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering are used to develop new strategies for producing valuable compounds ranging from therapeutics to biofuels in engineered microorganisms.

When developing methods for high-titer production cells, toxicity is an important element to consider. Indeed the production rate can be limited due to toxic intermediates or accumulation of byproducts of the heterologous biosynthetic pathway of interest. Conversely, highly toxic molecules are desired when designing antimicrobials.

Compound toxicity in bacteria plays a major role in metabolic engineering as well as in the development of new antibacterial agents. Here, we screened a diversified chemical library of compounds for toxicity in Escherichia coli. The dataset was built using a clustering algorithm maximizing the chemical diversity in the library.

The resulting assay data was used to develop a toxicity predictor that we used to assess the toxicity of metabolites throughout the metabolome. This new tool for predicting toxicity can thus be used for fine-tuning heterologous expression and can be integrated in a computational-framework for metabolic pathway design. Many structure-activity relationship tools have been developed for toxicology studies in eukaryotes [Valerio , Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 3 : ], however, to the best of our knowledge we present here the first E.

Effects-driven chemical fractionation of heavy fuel oil to isolate compounds toxic to trout embryos. Heavy fuel oils contain elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs and alkyl-PAHs, known to be toxic to fish; however, little direct characterization of HFO toxicity has been reported. An effects-driven chemical fractionation was conducted on HFO to separate compounds with similar chemical and physical properties, including toxicity , to isolate the groups of compounds most toxic to trout embryos.

After each separation, toxicity tests directed the next phase of fractionation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis correlated composition with toxicity , with a focus on PAHs. Low-temperature vacuum distillation permitted the separation of HFO into 3 fractions based on boiling point ranges. The most toxic of these fractions underwent wax precipitation to remove long-chain n-alkanes.

The remaining PAH-rich extract was further separated using open column chromatography, which provided distinct fractions that were grouped according to increasing aromatic ring count. The results of the present study were consistent with previous crude oil studies that identified PAH-rich fractions as the most toxic.

Developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds in a zebrafish embryotoxicity test. Jomaa, B. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to concentration ranges of selected thyroid-active model compounds in order to assess the applicability of zebrafish-based developmental scoring systems within an alternative testing strategy to detect the developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds.

Does lipophilicity of toxic compounds determine effects on drought tolerance of the soil collembolan Folsomia candida? The ability of Collembola to survive drought stress is crucial for their distribution in the terrestrial environment. Previous studies have suggested that several toxic compounds affect the drought tolerance of Folsomia candida in a synergistic manner and that these compounds have the feature in common that they elicit their toxicity by causing membrane damage.

We hypothesised that the detrimental effect of toxic chemicals on drought tolerance in F. In this study the three chemicals 4-nonylphenol, pyrene and p,p'-DDE were tested. Surprisingly, 4-nonylphenol, with the lowest log K ow , was the most potent with respect to reducing drought tolerance followed by pyrene, suggesting that interactions between drought tolerance and chemical stress do not depend on lipophilicity alone.

Full Text Available The worldwide rapid increase in bacterial resistance to numerous antibiotics requires on-going development of new drugs to enter the market. As the development of new antibiotics is lengthy and costly, early monitoring of compound 's toxicity is essential in the development of novel agents. Our interest is in a rapid, simple, high throughput screening method to assess cytotoxicity induced by potential agents. Some intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary site of infection is human alveolar macrophages.

Thus, evaluation of candidate drugs for macrophage toxicity is crucial. Protocols for high throughput drug toxicity screening of macrophages using flow cytometry are lacking in the literature. For this application we modified a preexisting technique, propidium iodide PI exclusion staining and utilized it for rapid toxicity tests. Samples were prepared in 96 well plates and analyzed by flow cytometry, which allowed for rapid, inexpensive and precise assessment of compound 's toxicity associated with cell death.

Aspects on the toxicity of cadmium and its compounds. The following literature review is concerned with certain questions relevant to occurrence, biochemical and toxicological effects of cadmium and its compounds. Emphasis has been laid on chronic effects which are of greatest importance from the view-point of environmental toxicology and ecology. The author is well aware of the difficulties when trying to give a well balanced picture of the complex subject involved, and has no ambition to present a complete work.

An in vitro assay for compounds toxic to rumen protozoa. The viability of protozoa in whole rumen fluid was assessed by measuring the incorporation of Me- 14 C-choline in vitro. The use of the technique as an assay for testing antiprotozoal agents was evaluated with a variety of surfactant detergents which have previously been shown to have antiprotozoal activity in vivo.

A good correlation was obtained between the potency of these compounds in vitro and in vivo. A comparative assessment of the acute inhalation toxicity of vanadium compounds. Vanadium compounds have become important in industrial processes, resulting in workplace exposure potential and are present in ambient air as a result of fossil fuel combustion. A series of acute nose-only inhalation toxicity studies was conducted in both rats and mice in order to obtain comparative data on the acute toxicity potential of compounds used commercially.

V 2 O 5 was the most acutely toxic micronized powder in both species. Despite its lower overall percentage vanadium content, a liquid aerosol of VOSO 4 was more toxic than the V 2 O 5 particles in mice, but not in rats. These data suggest that an interaction of characteristics, i. Based on clinical observations and gross necropsy findings, the lung appeared to be the target organ for all compounds. The level of hazard posed will depend on the specific chemical form of the vanadium.

Future work to define the inhalation toxicity potential of vanadium compounds of various oxidation states after repeated exposures will be important in understanding how the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of specific vanadium compounds interact to affect toxicity potential and the potential risks posed to human health.

In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides.

A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review. Review of pulmonary toxicity of indium compounds to animals and humans. Due to the increased production of ITO, the potential health hazards arising from occupational exposure to this material have attracted much attention.

This review consists of three parts: 1 toxic effects of indium compounds on animals, 2 toxic effects of indium compounds on humans, and 3 recommendations for preventing exposure to indium compounds in the workplace. Available data have indicated that insoluble form of indium compounds , such as ITO, indium arsenide InAs and indium phosphide InP , can be toxic to animals. Furthermore, InP has demonstrated clear evidence of carcinogenic potential in long-term inhalation studies using experimental animals.

As for the dangers to humans, some data are available concerning adverse health effects to workers who have been exposed to indium-containing particles. Accordingly, it is essential that much greater attention is focused on human exposure to indium compounds , and precautions against possible exposure to indium compounds are most important with regard to health management among indium-handling workers.

Environmental impact by toxic compounds from waste treatment; Miljoepaaverkan fraan toxiska aemnen vid hantering av avfall. The study deals with emissions of toxic compounds from waste treatment to the environment with the aim of improving the state of knowledge and to find a way of describing the environmental impact from these substances. Toxicity is one of a number of environmental aspects necessary to address in the planning of waste treatment and in the daily waste treatment routines in order to fulfill the environmental objective A Non- Toxic Environment and other environmental requirements.

The study includes waste to incineration, composting and anaerobic digestion. A comparison between methods were made for biological household waste. According to our study, the compounds of importance for waste treatment are metals and persistent organic compounds. These tend to bioaccumulate and enrich in food chains. The substances are important for the environmental objective A Non- Toxic Environment. Other substances may be added to the list in a next step from up-dated and quality-assured characterisation factors or from other requirements or preferences.

There is a limited knowledge on toxic compounds in waste flows and in different environmental compartments. More data are available for metals than for organic substances. There is also a limited knowledge on the fate of the compounds during the waste treatment processes. Most information is found for incineration. During composting and anaerobic digestion the metals will mainly be emitted to the environment by use of the compost and the anaerobic digestion residue.

Organic substances will to some extent be degraded during the processes. However, there are gaps of knowledge to fill for the further work on estimating toxic emissions. There is mainly a need for more extensive data on toxic compounds in waste and their variations. A test. Toxicity prediction is essential for drug design and development of effective therapeutics.

In this paper we present an in silico strategy, to identify the mode of action of toxic compounds , that is based on the use of a novel logic based kernel method. The technique uses support vector machines in conjunction with the kernels constructed from first order rules induced by an Inductive Logic Programming system. It constructs multi-class models by using a divide and conquer reduction strategy that splits multi-classes into binary groups and solves each individual problem recursively hence generating an underlying decision list structure.

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach for chemoinformatics problems like predictive toxicology, we apply it to toxicity classification in aquatic systems. The method is used to identify and classify compounds with respect to the mode of action. The experimental results show that the technique successfully classifies toxic compounds and can be useful in assessing environmental risks.

Experimental comparison of the performance of the proposed multi-class scheme with the standard multi-class Inductive Logic Programming algorithm and multi-class Support Vector Machine yields statistically significant results and demonstrates the potential power and benefits of the approach in identifying compounds of various toxic mechanisms. KGaA, Weinheim. The growing popularity of electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes raises concerns about the possibility of adverse health effects to primary users and people exposed to e-cigarette vapors.

E-Cigarettes offer a very wide variety of flavors, which is one of the main factors that attract new, especially young, users. How flavoring compounds in e-cigarette liquids affect the chemical composition and toxicity of e-cigarette vapors is practically unknown. Although e-cigarettes are marketed as safer alternatives to traditional cigarettes, several studies have demonstrated formation of toxic aldehydes in e-cigarette vapors during vaping. So far, aldehyde formation has been attributed to thermal decomposition of the main components of e-cigarette e-liquids propylene glycol and glycerol , while the role of flavoring compounds has been ignored.

In this study, we have measured several toxic aldehydes produced by three popular brands of e-cigarettes with flavored and unflavored e-liquids. We show that, within the tested e-cigarette brands, thermal decomposition of flavoring compounds dominates formation of aldehydes during vaping, producing levels that exceed occupational safety standards. Production of aldehydes was found to be exponentially dependent on concentration of flavoring compounds.

These findings stress the need for a further, thorough investigation of the effect of flavoring compounds on the toxicity of e-cigarettes. Innovative technologies for removing toxic compounds from groundwater and air. Rosocha, L. Innovative waste treatment technologies are being developed to remove hazardous organic wastes from water and air. These technologies involve the generation of highly reactive free radicals and their reaction with organic compounds.

Two efficient methods of producing these reactive free radicals are radiolysis and electrical-discharge plasmas. Radiolytic technology involves the irradiation of contaminated media with high-energy electron beams or x rays generated from the beams megavolt energies, hundreds of kilorad doses. These highly reactive species react with organic contaminants to produce C0 2 , H 2 0, and salts, which are no longer hazardous.

Nonequilibrium electrical-discharge plasmas involve the generation of copious quantities of reactive free radicals from the dissociation of molecular oxygen by energetic electrons in the gas-based discharge. One of the most promising technologies for plasma processing is based upon the ''silent electrical discharge'' that has proven to be industrially dependable for the generation of large quantities of ozone. The effect of substructural features of boron compounds on their toxicity LD 50 , mice, i.

The compounds were represented by 70 substructural fragments, 27 of them being ''central substructures'' containing boron atom s. The inference net consisted of nodes 74 of the Bayesian type , production rules and 74 context links. Toxicity evaluation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl and other compounds involved in studies of fossil fuels biodesulphurisation. The acute toxicity of some compounds used in fossil fuels biodesulphurisation studies, on the respiration activity, was evaluated by Gordonia alkanivorans and Rhodococcus erythropolis.

Moreover, the effect of 2-hydroxybiphenyl on cell growth of both strains was also determined, using batch chronic bioassays and continuous cultures. These results were confirmed by the chronic toxicity data. The toxicity data sets highlight for a higher sensitivity to the toxicant by the strain presenting a lower growth rate, due to a lower cells number in contact with the toxicant. Thus, microorganisms exhibiting faster generation times could be more resistant to 2-HBP accumulation during a BDS process.

The physiological response of both strains to 2-HBP pulse in a steady-state continuous culture shows their potential to be used in a future fossil fuel BDS process. Prediction of human population responses to toxic compounds by a collaborative competition. The ability to computationally predict the effects of toxic compounds on humans could help address the deficiencies of current chemical safety testing. Here, we report the results from a community-based DREAM challenge to predict toxicities of environmental compounds with potential adverse health effects for human populations.

We measured the cytotoxicity of compounds in lymphoblastoid cell lines for which genotype and transcriptional data are available as part of the Tox21 Genomes Project. The challenge participants developed algorithms to predict interindividual variability of toxic response from genomic profiles and population-level cytotoxicity data from structural attributes of the compounds.

Individual cytotoxicity predictions were better than random, with modest correlations Pearson's r compounds were higher r compounds , although risk estimation accuracy remains suboptimal. Compound was then dissolved in high purity acetone, and dispersed into deionized water. The solution was Comparison of the toxicity of fluoridation compounds in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Fluorides are commonly added to drinking water in the United States to decrease the incidence of dental caries.

Silicofluorides, such as sodium hexafluorosilicate Na2 SiF6 and fluorosilicic acid H2 SiF6 , are mainly used for fluoridation, although fluoride salts such as sodium fluoride NaF are also used. Interestingly, only the toxicity of NaF has been examined and not that of the more often used silicofluorides. The toxicity of these fluorides on the growth, feeding, and reproduction in the alternative toxicological testing organism Caenorhabditis elegans was examined.

Exposure to these compounds produced classic concentration-response toxicity profiles. Although the effects of the fluoride compounds varied among the 3 biological endpoints, no differences were found between the 3 compounds , relative to the fluoride ion concentration, in any of the assays.

This suggests that silicofluorides have similar toxicity to NaF. Toxicity assessment of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motorcycle exhaust. The toxicity evaluation of the major components of motorcycle exhaust volatile organic compounds VOCs , collected with impinger, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs , collected with filter and XAD-2, is essential to determine emission standards for motorcycles.

The toxicity of benzene B , toluene T , ethyl benzene E and xylene X was selected for comparison as standard VOCs emitted from motorcycles. In addition, three types of reformulated gasoline high oxygenate and high benzene content No. This study investigates the toxicity of various pollutant species from motorcycle exhaust via dose-response analysis and margin of safety using Escherichia coli DH5 alpha.

The purpose of this thesis is to introduce a new idea: using biological mimics in the detection of toxic compounds. Biological mimics imitate the active site of a given enzyme or have catalytic chemistry similar to enzymes and can be used in place of biological molecules to provide longer stability and simpler operation.

In the following text the…. Developmental toxicity from exposure to various forms of mercury compounds in medaka fish Oryzias latipes embryos. Full Text Available This study examined developmental toxicity of different mercury compounds , including some used in traditional medicines. Medaka Oryzias latipes embryos were exposed to 0. Of the forms of mercury in this study, the organic form MeHg proved the most toxic followed by inorganic mercury HgCl2, both producing embryo developmental toxicity.

Altered phenotypes included pericardial edema with elongated or tube heart, reduction of eye pigmentation, and failure of swim bladder inflation. Chemical forms of mercury compounds proved to be a major determinant in their developmental toxicity. Polyphenols are functional compounds in edible vegetable and food such as tea, coffee and red wine and increasing evidence demonstrates a positive link between consumption of polyphenol-rich foods and disease prevention. In this review we have focused on the current knowledge of the potential anti-glycation effects of polyphenols, particularly in regard to their influence on Maillard reaction, a non-enzymatic reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that contributes to the production of toxic compounds , mainly reactive carbonyl species, advanced glycation end-products AGEs and other toxicants.

The Maillard reaction occurs in the human body during hyperglycemic condition, but it is well known as browning reaction in thermally processed foods and it is responsible for flavor and toxicant formation. Dietary polyphenols can have anti-glycation effects and actively participate in Maillard reaction, mitigating the AGE formation and the heat-induced production of toxic compounds. In a time in which the role of a healthy diet in the prevention of chronic diseases is welcome and the borderline between food and medicine is becoming very thin, an improved mechanistic knowledge of how polyphenols can function to reduce harmful and unhealthy substances is mandatory.

Photoprotective effect and acute oral systemic toxicity evaluation of the novel heterocyclic compound LQFM During the determination of sun protection factor, LQFM 3 showed interesting results, specially as in association with other photoprotective compounds and commercial sunscreen.

Additionally, the compound 3 did not promote cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblasts. Moreover, it was not able to trigger acute oral systemic toxicity in mice, being classified as a compound with low acute toxicity hazard 2. The principal area of application of high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector HPLC-ECD has been in the analysis of naturally-occurring analytes, such as catecholamines, and pharmaceuticals in biological samples, HPLC-ECD has also applied to the analysis of pesticides and other analytes of interest to the toxicologist.

In this paper, toxic area is described. In these, ammatoxins, aromatic amine, nitro- compounds , algal toxins, fungal toxins, pesticides, veterinary drug Chemopreventive effect of natural dietary compounds on xenobiotic-induced toxicity. Full Text Available Contaminants or pollutants that affect human health have become an important issue, spawning a myriad of studies on how to prevent harmful contaminant-induced effects.

Recently, a variety of biological functions of natural dietary compounds derived from consumed foods and plants have been demonstrated in a number of studies. Natural dietary compounds exhibited several beneficial effects for the prevention of disease and the inhibition of chemically-induced carcinogenesis.

Contaminant-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis are mostly attributed to the mutagenic activity of reactive metabolites and the disruption of normal biological functions. Therefore, the metabolic regulation of hazardous chemicals is key to reducing contaminant-induced adverse health effects. Moreover, promoting contaminant excretion from the body through Phase I and II metabolizing enzymes is also a useful strategy for reducing contaminant-induced toxicity.

Full Text Available The effectiveness of many antimicrobial agents is currently decreasing; therefore, it is important to search for alternative therapeutics. Our study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity using microtiter plate assay, to characterize the bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and to test the oral acute toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats of extract derived from a novel bacterial species of Paenibacillus strain SI.

Our results indicate that the crude extract and its three identified compounds exhibit strong antibiofilm activity against a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Overall, our findings suggest that the extract and its purified compounds derived from novel Paenibacillus sp. The connection of thermodynamic properties and parameters of toxicity of chemical substances was determined.

Obtained data are used for the evaluation of toxicity and hygienic rate setting of chemical compounds. The relationship between enthalpy and toxicity of chemical compounds has been established. Orthogonal planning of the experiment was carried out in the course of the investigations.

Equation of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism is presented. Prospects of determination of toxicity and methodology of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism are presented. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels.

Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification OA , altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

Solar driven production of toxic halogenated and nitroaromatic compounds in natural seawater. Giuria 5, Torino Italy ], E-mail: paola. Giuria 5, Torino Italy. Natural seawater NSW sampled in March and June in the Gulf of Trieste, Italy, has been spiked with phenol and irradiated in a device simulating solar light spectrum and intensity. Opposite to the case of artificial seawater, for which phenol is slightly degraded by direct photolysis, in NSW the phenol degradation mediated by natural photosensitizers occurs, forming several secondary pollutants, including hydroxyderivatives 1,4-benzoquinone, resorcinol , three chlorophenol isomers, 2,3-dichlorophenol, 2- and 4-bromophenol, 2- and 4-nitrophenol, and several condensed products 2 and 4-phenoxyphenol, 2,2'-, 4,4'- and 2,4-bisphenol.

These compounds are toxic to bacteria and other living organisms. Ecotoxicologic effect has been evaluated by using the Vibrio Fischeri luminescent bacteria assay. This technique uses marine organisms, and it is therefore well suited for the study on marine samples. A correlation exists between the intermediates evolution and the toxicity profile, as the largest toxicity is observed when compounds with the lower EC50 halophenols, phenoxyphenols are formed at higher concentration.

The chemical nature of phenolic compounds determines their toxicity and induces distinct physiological responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in lignocellulose hydrolysates. We investigated the severity of the inhibitory effects of 13 phenolic compounds usually found in spruce hydrolysates 4-hydroxymethoxycinnamaldehyde, homovanilyl alcohol, vanillin, syringic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, dihydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydroquinone, ferulic acid, homovanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillylidenacetone.

The effects of the selected compounds on cell growth, biomass yield and ethanol yield were studied and the toxic concentration threshold was defined for each compound. Using Ethanol Red, the popular industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found the most toxic compound to be 4-hydroxymethoxycinnamaldehyde which inhibited growth at a concentration of 1. We also observed that toxicity did not generally follow a trend based on the aldehyde, acid, ketone or alcohol classification of phenolic compounds , but rather that other structural properties such as additional functional groups attached to the compound may determine its toxicity.

Three distinctive growth patterns that effectively clustered all the compounds involved in the screening into three categories. We suggest that the compounds have different cellular targets, and that. We suggest that the compounds have different cellular targets and inhibitory mechanisms in the cells, also compounds who share similar pattern on cell growth may have similar inhibitory effect and mechanisms of inhibition.

Development of non-standard methodical approaches when determining and interpreting the hazard classes of the wastes, containing high toxic compounds such as nerve gases. In particular, disembodied methods applied for solving the tasks of assessment of chemical compounds toxicity were summarized, as well as a uniform scheme of experimental toxicological assessment of TC of a high risk is presented. A system of quantitative assessment of the TC risk is developed on the basis of integral coefficient of risk KTC , thus simplifying decision making after toxicological testing.

Calculation of the coefficient of the TC risk is based on logarithm of ratio of toxicometry parameters to the value of identical parameters determining affiliation of the TC to the 1st class of risk extreme risk. Due to the methodology developed in our Institute, we have for the first time estimated the class of toxicity of a highly complicated industrial system. Rubber Hevea brasiliensis seed oil toxicity effect and Linamarin compound analysis.

Muell seed was extracted and analyzed for toxicological effect. Various methods analysis such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy FTIR and colorimetric methods were carried out to determine the present of such compounds. Toxicological test using rats was also conducted to further confirm the absence of such compounds.

RSO did not show any toxic potential to the rats. Conclusions This can be attributed no hazardous linamarin were found in RSO. The lipid fraction of rubber Hevea brasiliensis kunth. The determination of cyanide by using colorimetric method was demonstrated no response of the cyanide in RSO and didn't show any colored comparing with commercial cyanide which observed blue color.

This can be attributed no hazardous linamarin were found in RSO. Full Text Available The screening of several Chinese medicinal plants for insecticidal principles showed that essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides flowering aerial parts possessed significant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. A total of 37 components were identified in the essential oil and the main constituents of the essential oil were 4-phenylbutanone Repeated bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on silica gel columns led us to isolate three compounds , namely 4-phenylbutanone, 1,4-cineole, and nerolidol.

A concentration method for enrichment of toxic organic compounds in water samples has been developed based on combined solid-phase extraction SPE to reduce impurities and improve recoveries of target compounds. This SPE method was evaluated in every stage to identify the source of impurities. In order to reduce the impurities from SPE sorbent, soxhlet extraction of dichloromethane followed by acetone and lastly methanol was applied to the sorbents for 24 hours and the results had proven that impurities were reduced significantly.

In addition to soxhlet extraction, six types of prevalent SPE sorbents were used to absorb 40 target compounds , the lgK ow values of which were within the range of 1. Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2 5H -one] is a recently discovered and very promising anti-marine-fouling compound.

In this study, the acute toxicity of butenolide was assessed in several non-target organisms, including micro algae, crustaceans, and fish. Results were compared with previously reported results on the effective concentrations used on fouling target organisms. Mechanistically, the phenotype of butenolide-treated Danio rerio zebrafish embryos was similar to the phenotype of the pro-caspase-3 over-expression mutant with pericardial edema, small eyes, small brains, and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the bodies of zebrafish embryos.

This is the first detailed toxicity and toxicology study on this antifouling compound. Detection of toxic compounds in real water samples using a conductometric tyrosinase biosensor. A conductometric tyrosinase biosensor for the detection of some toxic compounds including diuron, atrazine, and copper ions was developed. The work of this biosensor is based on the principle of change of conductivity of the enzyme membrane when tyrosinase either interacts with 4-chlorophenol substrate or is inhibited by pollutants.

In the last case, classical techniques such as GC-MS or atomic absorption spectrometry were used in order to estimate exact concentration of these species in real water samples. Results have shown that such a biosensor could be used as an early warning system for the detection of these pollutants, as no matrix effect coming from the real sample was observed and no synergetic or antagonist effects were found for the mixture of toxic compounds.

In addition, results were coherent with the content of the tyrosinase inhibitors. E-mail: chovelon univ-lyon1. Full Text Available Most tropical fruits after harvest are very perishable because of fungal infection. Since some pathogenic fungi can produce hazardous compounds such as mycotoxins, novel rapid and effective methods to assess those hazardous compounds are urgently needed.

Herein we report that Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67, a luminescent bacterium, can be used to rapidly assess the toxicities of mycotoxins and cultures from mycotoxin-producing pathogens. Q67 was obtained. These results suggest that V. Q67 is a promising alternative for the rapid evaluation of the toxicity of fungal mycotoxins.

Current data regarding the structure- toxicity relationship of boron-containing compounds. Boron is ubiquitous in nature, being an essential element of diverse cells. As a result, humans have had contact with boron containing compounds BCCs for a long time. During the 20th century, BCCs were developed as antiseptics, antibiotics, cosmetics and insecticides. Boric acid was freely used in the nosocomial environment as an antiseptic and sedative salt, leading to the death of patients and an important discovery about its critical toxicology for humans.

Since then the many toxicological studies done in relation to BCCs have helped to establish the proper limits of their use. During the last 15 years, there has been a boom of research on the design and use of new, potent and efficient boron containing drugs, finding that the addition of boron to some known drugs increases their affinity and selectivity. This mini-review summarizes two aspects of BCCs: toxicological data found with experimental models, and the scarce but increasing data about the structure-activity relationship for toxicity and therapeutic use.

As is the case with boron-free compounds , the biological activity of BCCs is related to their chemical structure. We discuss the use of new technology to discover potent and efficient BCCs for medicinal therapy by avoiding toxic effects. Estimate of the prevalence and burden of food poisoning by natural toxic compounds in South Korea. Many studies have attempted to accurately estimate the overall number of cases of foodborne illness, but there have not been many attempts to estimate the burden of foodborne disease caused by natural toxic compounds.

This study estimated the number of cases due to specific natural toxins seafood toxins, plant toxins, and mycotoxins during in South Korea, using data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service HIRA , while accounting for uncertainty in the estimate. Among toxins, mushroom and plant toxins caused the highest illnesses, followed by toxic agents in seafood and mycotoxins. The year olds had the highest proportion of illnesses and those over the age of 40 accounted for The cases caused by mushroom poison, poisonous plants, and seafood toxins showed clear seasonal and regional differences.

These results will be useful to food safety policymakers for the prevention and control of natural food poisons in South Korea. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of selenium compounds in the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda.

Background Selenium is a trace element performing important biological functions in many organisms including humans. It usually affects organisms in a strictly dosage-dependent manner being essential at low and toxic at higher concentrations. The impact of selenium on mammalian and land plant cells has been quite extensively studied. Information about algal cells is rare despite of the fact that they could produce selenium enriched biomass for biotechnology purposes.

Results We studied the impact of selenium compounds on the green chlorococcal alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. Both the dose and chemical forms of Se were critical factors in the cellular response. Se toxicity increased in cultures grown under sulfur deficient conditions. The total amount of Se and selenomethionine in biomass increased with increasing concentration of Se in the culturing media.

In both the wild type and Se-resistant strains, the activity of thioredoxin reductase, increased rapidly in the presence of the form of selenium for which the given algal strain was not resistant. Conclusion The selenium effect on the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was not only dose dependent, but the chemical form of the element was also crucial. With sulfur deficiency, the selenium toxicity increases, indicating interference of Se with sulfur metabolism.

The amount of selenium and SeMet in algal biomass was dependent on both the type of compound and its dose. The activity of thioredoxin reductase was affected by selenium treatment in dose-dependent and toxic -dependent manner. The findings implied that the increase in TR activity in algal cells was a stress response to selenium cytotoxicity.

Our study provides a new. Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is a trace element performing important biological functions in many organisms including humans. Effects of toxic compounds in Montipora capitata on exogenous and endogenous zooxanthellae performance and fertilization success.

Full Text Available Studies have identified chemicals within the stony coral genus Montipora that have significant biological activities. For example, Montiporic acids A and B and other compounds have been isolated from the adult tissue and eggs of Montipora spp. Frequently he deplored the difficulty of truly reckless gambling, with that officious orbit fore-dooming him ever to success. Of late, certain events had decided him to buy in a vast amount of stock, giving mostly bills in exchange.

Then, like a bolt from the blue, one Antoine Gobert, from Venezuela, made his sensational announcement: no less than the discovery of a cheap preparation for the making of diamonds. The days following this revelation were fraught with the greatest strain to the merchants in the trade.

It was unlucky for the youngest diamond-merchant in London that he should have been buying in with such rapidity and vigour. His elders shook their grey heads over Stuart, but consulted him notwithstanding, in this period of crisis; an unconscious tribute to certain brilliant strokes made by the firm within the past three years. Gobert, having flung his bombshell, did not seem inclined to part too easily with the mysteries of his prescription.

Rumour was busy, and prices fluctuated wildly. With difficulty was a panic averted. Stuart firmly declared the magician a fraud; continued to assert it contrary to the opinions of the majority, older men, men of deep experience. It was felt that some decisive step would have to be taken, before Gobert should make newspaper babble of his secret. Already journalism was on the scent; and once known, the romance of the thing would cause it to be gobbled greedily by the public.

So the wizard was approached; discreetly sounded; finally, an offer made to him by Sir Fergus Macpherson, of the firm of Grey, Macpherson and Sons, well-known diamond-merchants. An offer of twenty thousand pounds for the purpose of private experiment; a slip of paper, containing the exact [71] ingredients of the manufacture, to be placed, in token of good faith, at the Bank of England. Gobert refused twenty thousand pounds.

Not enough. Fifty thousand then? So be it, fifty thousand. The money was paid over, and the experiments started. Then, somehow a doubt of Gobert arose and grew. And that very day, April the 16th, it was finally decided that the envelope was to be opened, the miracle laid bare. If genuine—so much the worse for dealers in diamonds; so much the worse for Stuart Heron in particular.

The issue would not have loomed in his eyes so stupendous, were it not that he felt his credit with Derwent and Arthur at stake. The firm had relied on his judgment. So that, sitting in earnest consultation with Sir Fergus and a certain Rupert Rosenstein, his mouth was set in sterner lines than his age warranted, and a deep frown lay between his eyebrows.

But it was several minutes before Sir Fergus rose to take leave. Glittering crystals, produced in such quantities as to flood the universe like dewfall Stuart straightened his shoulders. No good anticipating the worst. Peter and Merle were waiting, rather impatiently, at the far end of the apartment.

Some of their April joyousness had been swamped by the oppressive atmosphere surrounding them. The sunshine, creeping through the heavily curtained window, was merely metallic here. So that they greeted Stuart with relief. And now please take it off. Or is it merely semi-detached? Stuart did not reply. Nor was there perceptible alteration in his demeanour. But Peter was too amused by his garments of black decorum, to note that to-day they were something more than skin-deep.

You promised us the hat! Are you in any trouble? Or—can I? His eye fell on Digby, eager for attention. He looked relieved. Would you care to have a look round the place? Baldwin glanced in some surprise at the figures of Peter and Merle, standing irresolutely by the window. Then returned to his private office. The confidential clerk showed them out. On the stone steps, they came face to face with a little shrivelled man, head cocked to one side; Arthur Heron, had they known it; rat about to rejoin the sinking ship.

Every time she recalled the blank look which had received her first eager speeches it was as if someone had dealt her a blow in the face. Oh, the stinging ignominy which lay in the remembrance of Merle and herself, two blushing incoherent little—idiots, intruding with froth and futility into the world of real things, solid things, things that matter, world of men. And Stuart could so easily have averted humiliation from their heads: one look, one word, to prove his recollection of the thousand intimacies that had lain between them.

He should be sorrier still, soon! His fault, every bit; not for ejecting them, but for ever having dared invite them—to meet with that. For Madame des Essarts had sallied forth, in diamonds and dignity, to a banquet celebrating the arrival in office of a new Greek minister.

The handsome old lady, with her social talents, her knowledge of foreign languages, her dainty pointed wit, the aura of martyrdom which clung to her enforced exile from the hated Republic of France—to which she could return whenever she pleased—was of the type that had, in ruffled and beruffled days, swayed kings and unmade ministers.

Perhaps the secret of her lost art lay in the fact that she never for one moment forgot she was dealing with men, nor let them forget that she regarded them as such, lords and puppets. Not for Antoinette des Essarts the cheery comradeship, the quick sexless sympathy, the contempt of cajolery and intrigue, which distinguished the generation among which she now moved. In her soft gown of eau-de-nil —for who, argues Madame des Essarts, who of the noblesse would appear by evening light save in silk attire and satin slipper?

Peter should by invitation have been keeping her company this night, and making exceeding merry over the ceremonial repast. Yet to-night, lacking Peter, some of the old wistful regrets touched Merle with chilly fingers; followed her with ghostly trip into the little boudoir, grey and primrose, Lancret looped medallion-wise into the overmantel; whispered in lisping voices of a day that might possibly come when Dresden, with ribboned crook for sceptre, should again reign supreme in her life; pointed in light mockery to a picture that adorned the wall: Merle herself, aged eight, standing stiffly posed beside a sundial; hands busy with the ivory sticks of a painted fan; toes primly turned outwards; smooth, dark curls; high-waisted pink frock.

One moment fixed indelibly to symbolize a whole childhood. Who had taught her otherwise, before her twentieth birthday? An April shower of rain swept the panes, glowing sapphire-dark behind their primrose hangings. With wild hurrahs, a tangle of long legs and flying skirts whizzed down the banisters and landed in a heap at the foot.

Something delightful and sturdy, with dark red hair and blown-out cheeks, was marching to and fro on the polished drawing-room floor, waving flags and shouting Thus Merle drew from the Land of Corners, shadowy corners of the old house, dim unswept corners in her brain, dog-eared corners of forgotten picture-books, a whole host of children; ordinary, healthy, grubby youngsters, who would reduce the silent beautiful rooms to their proper state of scrum and chaos.

Above all, naughty children; she collected the warm cosy naughtinesses that has never been hers; gloated over each separate deed of infamy; as if in offering to the prim sad-eyed daintily clothed image on the wall. Dick was for ever robbing orchards and being chased by irate farmers. But then how could he help it, this eldest son of hers, just entering that close-cropped hobnailed condition that betokens the schoolboy? And Merle liked to see his rough bullet-head buried in her lap, in moods of half-sullen contrition; would have kept it permanently there, had Dick been willing.

Nobody-loves-me came wandering in from the garden. Boy-girl it was who erstwhile slid the banisters; she, who climbed trees, and made ladders in her stockings—such as no young lady should—and blarneyed the cook; and once, by way of an experiment, cut short not only her own mane of hair, but also the straggly crop of Nobody-loves-me.

The incarnation of swift and mischievous daring, Boy-girl; but who could be angry with her long, when she brought her coaxing Irish charm to bear on the situation? Merle was not quite sure. She knew only that it was, undeniably, Irish charm. And finally solved the riddle by making the shadowy father of this swarming brood, a son of Erin. The little-mother-to-her-sisters-and-brothers, gentle, smooth-haired and fond of her needle, to be found in every well-regulated family, Merle, on consideration, also presented as a free gift to Peter.

Her own unacknowledged favourite was the funny little beggar with the puck-like ears, three-cornered nostrils set to catch the rain, and scientific mind; which latter prompted him invariably to take articles to pieces for the sake of seeing how they worked. And they never worked again. There were many, many costly rarities in the house, Merle remembered happily, that literally asked for his attentions.

Or did she after all more tenderly incline to the delicate child with clustering pale-gold hair? Unable to slaughter in cold blood anything so lately born, she compromised by Tumultuously alive now, all these ordinary healthy grubby youngsters; making walls within and sky without, resound with their whoops and coo-ees. A few stray naughtinesses yet to be collected from chimney-corner and rafter and cellar; such as leaving all doors open,—except, in swift amendment, when Dick rather chooses to bang them.

The nurseries overflow with messy pets—nor does Puck ever [80] remember to feed his guinea-pig. And now Stuart is standing before her, eyes full of trouble She made no reply, not quite sure whether his mood be not of mockery.

And suddenly, with a quick and—for him—rather clumsy movement, he dropped onto his knees beside her chair, buried his head deep in her lap; so that it almost seemed as if Dick Merle let her fingers stray, half-fearfully, among the rebellion of rough brown hair. For in the blur of twilight and dreams and pattering rain, she could not as yet entirely separate her phantom visitants from the real ones.

And with a gulp and a leap, the room was warm with a multitude of tiny blue tongues, licking and panting through their skull-like rings. Then it came out, not in a grateful [81] unburdening torrent, but in wrung jerky sentences, of which the last caught up and contained the whole hidden cause of pain:.

Something wrong here which lay too deep for her understanding. Merle asked no questions; content to dry his coat; touch lingeringly his hair and shoulders; give him the comfort she dimly felt he most needed. His fingers, which had gripped and twisted at hers till she could have cried out with the pain, now slackened their pressure. For the moment, the girl had succeeded in exorcising the demons which were so strangely tormenting his soul.

A hush in the room. A hush so profound, that two little figures stirred restlessly in their corner, came tip-toeing hand-in-hand towards the door of the boudoir. If only they would leave him in peace, just for a moment, mind and body. He said nothing, but still pleaded; and bending down her face to his, she found their lips clinging together.

After he had gone, Merle sat awhile, wondering how much of what had passed must be told to Peter. Loyalty, and the compact they had made: whatever happened, to keep the path unblocked between them, demanded an exact account of events. But that compact had been formed in alliance against a hard and ruthless Stuart of their imaginings. Her instincts were all to protect the boy who had come to her in his trouble.

He had come to her—the thought was charged with sweetness. And here she experienced a pang of pity for the girl, the other girl, who looked like being the one left out. Hers to disprove the theory. A secret unshared by Peter would, moreover, be an insult to the spirit of the trio; the first menace to its continued existence. Merle hesitated no longer, but sat down at the escritoire, and wrote her letter; a letter which omitted nothing, not even the final embrace—though she winced at the thought that Peter might possibly misconstrue it to something more of man and woman, less of child.

Then she rang the bell and gave orders for the missive to be taken at once to the post. Up the hushed staircase, and into the vast shadowy bedroom. Old Rosenstein! Not a sign of him. Left that morning, the landlady said; bag, baggage—and incidentally, our fifty thousand. Still, compared with what it might have cost us—well, what do you think of it? And then I must be off. Wanted to set your mind at rest first. Where have you been all these hours?

Something like emotion shook his voice. He awoke next day to the same memory, lashing him with whips of shame. Stuart did not spare himself in terms of abuse. And Merle had encouraged him to make an exhibition of himself; Merle had lent a sympathetic ear to his woes; asked no [86] questions; flooded him with rosy forgiveness. Merle had made it easy for him—easy and comfortable; dried his coat Verb which to Stuart expressed the apex of abomination.

A sense of justice reasserted itself. Merle was charming, no doubt of it; her response to his appeal a very idyll of fragrance and simplicity. Then, returning to her room, she seated herself on the edge of the bed; and, a pale-haired gleaner in the early sunshine, proceeded to examine her harvest.

The bill contained an intimation to the effect that Mr. Lazarus, tailor, was amazed that Miss Kyndersley should have ignored his repeated applications for payment, [87] and could only suppose they had slipped her memory, as otherwise doubtless, etc. Of paying there could be no question. Peter, true to the traditions of her caste, never settled her debts till actually threatened by the law; when she would hastily sell her silver hair-brushes, or borrow from her aunt, or pledge the half-of-her-next-year-but-one income; diminutive amount at best, inherited from her dead mother.

Never yet had she been altogether free from pecuniary embarrassments; would indeed have missed the background of their mutterings, as those who have dwelt long by the sea cannot bear to be deprived of its eternal swish. Quentin, striving to mingle in equal proportions formality with infatuation, begged leave to visit her at Thatch Lane the following Sunday.

She wondered what his attitude was likely to be. Peter raised her head; gazed straight through the window, across garden and hedge and field, to where the Weald hunched its back against the sky. But her eyes missed the tender greens and misty blues of the landscape; could not share in the joy of the house on discovering it at last owned, after five gloomy months, a clear black shadow to lay upon the dew-wet grass. It was not the incident itself which rankled; but recognition of a fact that long ago had carried its conviction, though only now its results: Merle was allowed, by the unseen code, to be the more feminine of the twain.

She, Peter, thrust willy-nilly into the bolder, more challenging position. Was it that she was born with a tilt to her soul, as well as to her nose and chin? She could not tell. But Stuart, gravitating to her for all stimulation, had nevertheless gone to Merle for comfort. And Peter wondered furthermore why she played up so persistently to the Laughing-Cavalier qualities, with which from the very first he had chosen to endow her. And, wondering, knew yet that she must continue boyish and defiant; though she, even as Merle, wanted how much to be tender to him in his present attire of sackcloth and ashes.

The breakfast-gong, half an hour later, led her to the bathroom; and another quite irrelevant gong saw her wrestling with stockings. Easy enough to find time for being sorry, after the cause of anxiety had been removed. It required no Stuart Heron for that. Nor did she consider that the strain adequately accounted for his preoccupation of the morning. According to his own standards, he should be strung up to response at any moment, however inopportune.

If he could be exacting, why, so also could she. Quite cured of her yearnings towards womanly tenderness, she tossed aside the paper, and helped herself to eggs and bacon. And these things will get in the papers, and there you are! What can you expect? Thus having, according to custom, neatly packed away the entire set of events within her own private and particular boundaries; reduced each participant, including Heaven and the Bank of England, to a height convenient for patting on the head, Miss Esther Worthing asked for the marmalade.

The telephone bell rang. Peter dashed up the stairs, prepared to spurn still further into the dust the bowed [90] and prostrate figure at the other end of the wire. That you, Peter It would have been so much less obvious on your part, to have held out the hand of forgiveness. Peter thought how pleasant it would be to hurt him.

Hurt him quite badly. Naturally, after your business troubles were so unexpectedly smoothed out, you had leisure to turn your attention to—minor matters. Their speeches followed each other with the thud and rebound of a swift rally over the tennis-net. At present you are merely laying yourself open to the unpleasant necessity of apologizing. She was unable to tell if his evident anger were assumed or genuine.

But, if the latter, so much the better; she anticipated a pleasurable excitement from the unexplored territory beyond the limits of his tolerance. He was speaking again. And Peter wished he would free his voice from its straining bonds of control.

I am a liar. A very plausible and rather dangerous liar. But, quite by accident, in the present instance I happen to be speaking the truth. Peter went for a walk. She walked hard for a couple of hours; avoided the plunging soil of pasture-land, in favour of hard country roads, where her feet met with a ringing resistance. On reaching a village, six miles distant from Thatch Lane, she entered without hesitation the local post-office. In this wise, the trio forfeited their first fine carelessness.

Disintegration was imminent, though none could tell as yet which way it would manifest itself. Each of their words and actions, however trivial, took on a certain significance. For Merle had battled with the temptation to be disloyal towards Peter. For Stuart had twice in a day ceased to be master of his moods, and vowed by all his gods these moods should neither recur again. For Merle cherished the second of them as a memory sweeter than music.

For Merle had been visited by an old ghost, and by a merry host of new ones. For Peter had definitely flung her cloak, tossed her plume, donned the disguise which Stuart mistook for nature. For all these follies and cross-follies are the outcome of certain fatal desires to go a-maying on a day of April!

Apology that would probably manifest itself in a deed of unwonted daring, originality and impudence, that none might suspect it of being an apology; deed which would firmly re-establish in the eyes of the twain his slightly shaken position. For though with Peter he had crossed swords in single combat, had known the pleasure of knocking from her grasp the weapon, the pleasure of stepping back to allow her to resume it,—not, most certainly, because he was a little gentleman, but because he preferred her blade in hand; for though with Merle he had walked awhile in a two-world too softly cushioned for his taste; yet with these things the spirit of the trio did not concern itself.

Nor was it to be placated save by offering to the number three. Dorothy wanted to know if she need write to you both separately, but I said it would be all right. Shall we accept? My country boots are done for. The Bull and Boot sounds like a public-house. Grandmaman had no objections whatever, though the invitation came somewhat too informally for her notions of etiquette.

Stuart established her with Merle in a first-class carriage, with every possible luxury; for in detail-work he excelled, never allowing their schemes to be upset by a single hitch of the mechanical order. Then, to their astonishment, he begged leave to retire to a smoker. They saw nothing of him during the next few hours, not even in the luncheon-car.

The engine gathered all its slumbering forces, and thundered at the speed of a mile a minute through the tiny station in its setting of bold red rock. Which was obvious, seeing that her slight figure against the window was flung from side to side by the reckless pace at which the express was pounding through Devon.

I doubt if she knows of your existence. You played with fire. You lured us from our homes on false pretences? So he merely nodded assent. He stole a glance at Peter; her eyes were dancing, and the corners of her mouth tilted upwards. So that he knew he had pleased her. Heron should come together. Your mother will know that we are not where we seem. Merle took fright at the notion. Grandmaman moves mainly among consuls, you know. But they visit on At Home days.

I sat me down and thought and thought and thought what one lady could be made to do, to mortally offend another. I repeat, to mortally offend another. All for the prevention of visits on At Home days. Would you like me to make out the list for your big reception next month? Nay, she was touched almost to the point of tears. So I sat me down again at her desk, with lots of ceremonial and fuss—address-books heaped all round, a new ruler, and red ink, and a Bradshaw and Debrett and the telephone book; and made out a list of visitors, omitting the name of Madame des Essarts.

Mark you this, Merle! Then I read the list aloud to my mother, including the name of Madame des Essarts. Mark you this also, Merle! Then my mother, well-pleased, handed to her private secretary the list, minus the name of Madame des Essarts. And Madame des Essarts, not receiving an invitation to the reception, will be mortally offended.

And my mother, receiving no reply from Madame des Essarts, will likewise be mortally offended. Both mortally offended. The feud will probably extend over generations. Montague and Capulet. In consequence whereof, Merle and I will be forbidden to marry. And your grand operatic abduction will be a failure. And they took three rooms at the Ocean Hotel, facing the sea to the south and to the west, because it was too late the night of their arrival to seek convenient caves, especially three caves of exactly the same dimensions, conditions essential to avoid jealousy and strife.

The Ocean Hotel stood on an isolation of headland, like some stone medieval fortress, frowning at the rocky imitation opposite, which ran far out into the Atlantic, and then piled itself up crag upon crag, an echo wrought in granite. Peter awoke the next morning, possessed by a great lust for actual touch of the sea, where she had hitherto only enjoyed its sight and sound; and would hardly leave her companions time to wallow in the tubs of yellow cream which were a feature of their breakfast, in her impatience to run down the steep twisting path which she knew existed somewhere just outside But the land of Cornwall and the waves of Cornwall were not ready yet to be friends with the strangers; and all that day led them a mocking dance by crag and outjutting cape and promontory; over moor and round seven points, and never a downward way to the sea.

Cast an evil spell upon the strangers, so that ever from two hundred feet below, the water beckoned them stealthily into cavernous velvet glooms; sang loudly [99] of wonder and glory in the cold crash of breakers against the cliff; tormented them with glint of blue in its plum-darkness, hint of glittering green whenever the clouds above swirled aside to reveal patches of clear sky. For the strangers need not yet be shown what riot of colours were sheathed in scabbard of sullen grey.

Peter could have dragged the elusive sun by main force into prominence, battered with fists of rage against the uncompromising fall of rock which baffled her, and mocked her, and drew her on with continual promise of a way to the sea round the next curve Stuart laughed at her impatience. It was a hard land, a good land; and he knew it, and did not talk about it, but was content to swing along over turf and bog and stone; aware of limitless space in which to tire his limbs.

And once he came racing like a greyhound, past his comrades, towards a six-barred gate which lay ahead. Stuart could have shaken her for this effect on him. He did not mind at all behaving childishly, but objected vehemently to thinking childishly.

Peter perched herself upon the gate; and airily told the sea that it was all a mistake, she had no desire whatever to reach it. And the sea in response threw out a sparkle of gold and a spurt of foam, so that the longing rose in her heart fiercer than ever.

It was a gate padlocked and bolted, though it led to nowhere, and guarded nothing; and to the right and left of it lay open country; and to the immediate right and left, piled-up blocks of rough stone, for kindly assistance of those who would elude the padlocks. A mad gate in a mad country. And now the sun, thinking it had teased enough, broke in a pale dazzle on the grey land and sea; then, gaining strength, poured silver streams of light through a rent in the sky, lay in silver puddles and splashes on the water.

The dark toneless granite piled itself into strange shapes of tower and turret, and all about the sea-birds wheeled and shrieked. Cities and churches and meadows A dead land, now. Peter smiled; so like Stuart, this glimpse of an afterwards as merely the rest which comes before a fresh bout of strenuous labour. Peter looked around her, half-dazed by this long mental immersion in dark coral-caves. The sky had meanwhile deepened into blue, and all the buried colours of earth and water had leapt into being.

Stuart seized the scarlet cap from her head, before she was even aware of his intentions, and was almost directly over the edge of safety, and out of sight. It was several minutes before they again caught sight of him, scrambling with all the agility appertaining to impossible schoolboy heroes, towards the spot indicated.

His figure was reduced by distance and surroundings to absurdly small dimensions. He paused on reaching his goal, hung the patch of crimson on to the ledge of rock, waved gaily towards his far-off companions; then, cramming the cap again in his pocket, swung himself round a boulder apparently poised in mid-air, and out of their line of vision.

Nothing can happen to Stuart, ever. But Peter had just learnt of something extremely disturbing which had happened to herself. And venting her indignation at the discovery, upon the cause thereof, refused to fall sobbing upon his neck, when he met them on the homeward way, and carelessly returned her [] headgear. Nor did she take outward and visible notice of bleeding abrasions upon either knee, ostentatiously displayed. But Merle—feeling his recent performance ought really not to be encouraged—treated him to a sober lecture on foolhardiness, which lasted till Peter provided distraction by leaving her right leg, as far as the thigh, in a bog of black mud.

The sun was a level blaze of gold in their eyes, by the time they trudged up the last slope, and into their fortress. They were weary with a splendid weariness of limb; and drowsy with the strangeness of that strange land; and, moreover, wind-blown and wet and satiated of beauty. Peter entered her room, and closed the door; pulled down the blind to give respite from the outside world; plunged her hands in water, and cast off her shoes and stockings.

Then flung herself on the narrow bed, where Merle presently joined her. And they ate of the expensive chocolates destined for Mistress Dorothy Orson, and were at peace. Somebody whistling, now loudly, now softly, up and down the passages and stairs. Nearing their door, it paused on a plaintive up-note of enquiry. Peter took pity on the homeless wanderer, and before Merle could protest, called him in. They must have turned my room into a step-ladder or a revolving book-case; I shall hate sleeping to-night in a revolving book-case; one would get so giddy.

The room was small, with a dingy paper, and an [] unclothed gas-jet springing from the wall. The blind that shut out daylight, and dimmed the corners to mystery, was torn, and the cord flapped a perpetual complaint. The tin basin on the washstand stood unemptied of its dirty water. Only their moods of serene happiness were rather at variance with the puppets of fiction, evil or perhaps merely hopeless, with which Zola might have peopled the dreary chamber.

Nothing easier. That stretch of river between Cliveden and Cookham would make quite a good ceiling. Nor will we take it on a repairing lease, but leave the Thames Conservancy responsible for damages. Merle at this juncture wanted to know how he saw the Thames Conservancy; in her eyes, it wore very bright blue with lots of gilt buttons, and was always sitting round a table. One wide person that could be stretched all round the table and be joined with a button when it met itself.

One giraffe, added to another Anyhow, Merle will want a domestic animal to cuddle on her lap. A giraffe will do nicely, besides being useful for measuring purposes. And because she secretly hoped for a canary, she proposed a tortoise. No, not even a dentist.

A little wind flapped aside the blind, giving a momentary glimpse of sea-lapped rocks and battlements: a castle of enchantment aglow in the ebbing light. Merle immediately decided to have it transported to the Room, for her special use and benefit. Not to be outdone, Stuart and Peter ordered each a castle of like design and pattern; he stipulating, however, [] for a border of Norfolk Broads in lieu of the Atlantic. And because his manner was wont to become suddenly absent and remote whenever he chanced to speak of his Sailing Paradise, they quickly granted him his desire, and changed the subject, lest he should elude them altogether.

Indeed, Peter was in a terrible tangle; for she had discovered that inside her castle was a room— the Room, in fact; and this Room in its turn held a castle, the same castle—which held another Room, containing a castle, which——. Quentin knows a lot about plumbing. Carr at a dinner-party, and derived from him a quantity of pure happiness. Quentin and Baldwin together, and keep the essence in a sentry-box in the Room, for the performing of odd jobs.

Squeith has got personality. Squeith pleases me. And Squeith shall immediately be set to work on that recurring decimal. It was perceived that even while they chattered, Room and castle had already recurred seven times, ending on a Room.

And Peter said she would sleep in the last Room but one—the fifth, to be exact,—before the dot was put in. Beware of Counterfeit. An Outer Circle line running the whole way round, close under the walls; with real tunnels and signal-boxes. The lines shall be laid for the purpose of taking passengers from Euston to Euston. And here Stuart interposed with the offer of his almost forgotten Wagon-lit , the tame red Wagon-lit with trustful brown eyes, hitherto kept in the back garden among the washing.

He gave her a clothes-line, so that she could be perpetually wringing out her soul, and hanging it up to dry. In return for which piece of impertinence, she presented him with a nice easy rack, which he could work himself, like a barrel-organ, by turning a handle; and thus practise for half an hour every morning after breakfast, the self-torture he so affected. With hurdles and barriers and sacks and barbed wire.

Moonshades and paralunes. Then they added to the row, a Railway Shop, which, combining butcher and baker and fishmonger in one, provided those peculiar comestibles to be met with at station-buffets and in dining-cars alone. In particular, there existed the notorious Railway-fish, white and sticky, of which large numbers should swim in a sunken tank in the Railway Shop, till such time as required for consumption.

Then, as if one shop bred another, it was discovered that these wary fish could not be caught save with a bent pin on a piece of string; thus involving the erection of a Bent-pin Shop. That would be non-alcoholic, of course; with a permanent impression in the window, of birds dark against a peaceful sunset. And Squeith can patronize it for his morning glass of milk-and-soda.

Peter assented rather reluctantly; she was quite sure that the Womanly-woman would make her wear gloves. An Ancient Retainer, say; or a Rabbit. These Plasticine figures are awfully useful. Stuart shook his head. Only childishness. Rot, if you like—not silly rot! And to divert him, contributed to the Room a sailing-boat, a rustic sailing-boat, stationary, and overgrown with ivy and clematis.

And from the stern should depend a tiny toy sailing-boat, price sixpence halfpenny, which they could really sail on a piece [] of string. And then, in opposition, he offered a nautical summer-house, with decks, and ropes, and a burgee fluttering bravely from the mainmast. The Room might by now be considered almost complete in its furnishings. With a Heaven-born inspiration, Merle placed in its exact centre a small bamboo table, rather rickety, on which reposed a vase of flowers.

Bit by bit, as the red ball of the sun quenched its fires in the chill Atlantic, so the dingy little number nine bedroom of the Ocean Hotel, grew darker and darker still. At last nothing could be descried save the grey outlines of the tin basin; a glimmer across the cracked looking-glass; on and around the bed, three figures, dimly sprawling.

But in their own Playroom, the trio disport themselves as lords and emperors. Boundless space is theirs; time without limit; while facts they prick and shrivel like toy-balloons. Peter, astride of the engine which draws her wagon-lit , is whizzing round and round the Outer Circle, all the signals in her favour, that naught shall arrest her triumphant speed.

Merle, discovering that Stuart has, after all, succeeded in importing his private public-house, enters through its swing-doors, nothing loth to demand a strawberry-ice-cream [] soda. The while Stuart dangles his legs from the notched parapet of his castle; and noting Squeith in the act of hailing the bell-buoy who sells the morning muffins, impishly frustrates all such traffic by a sudden alteration of the time to half-past five p.

Poor Squeith! While the housemaid hunted for the matches, a figure rose nonchalantly from the floor, and stole out into the passage. So that the flare of light revealed merely two sleepy-eyed girls lying across the bed. Stuart solved the riddle which lay in the personality of Mine Host, by declaring that whereas in summer he followed the fair and guileless calling of hotel-keeper, in winter a bolder voice summoned him forth, and he threw off his disguises, and donned ear-rings, and became a Corsair.

And indeed there was that about him of jolly rakish raffish swagger, a roll in his gait, and a ruddiness of visage, and withal a disposition to solemn winking of the left eye, and a tendency to be found in odd moments dancing strange dances the length of his own hall, which gave to such a suggestion a flavour of likelihood.

But the Ocean Hotel could produce no equally satisfactory solution to the problem of Merle, Peter, and Stuart; and the various possibilities in the way of marital, sentimental, immoral, or blood relationship, that their companionship entailed.

Perceiving this, Stuart found gentle delight in preserving strict impartiality in the bestowal of his outward affections. A climax was reached, when, under their assembled eyes, Peter entered the breakfast-room and [] handed a tobacco-pouch to her lord and master, reminding him in bell-like tones that he had left it in her room. But when the visitors at the hotel complained of people who go from table to table before meals; deliberately and in the sight of all, pouring cream from smaller vessels into one gigantic bowl, thereafter placed upon their own table; then the Five Females did so persistently harass and beset the Corsair, that he became quite melancholy, and would sit all day long in the porch, gazing seawards, without even the heart to nudge Peter in the ribs as she passed him by; a delicate attention she sorely missed.

For he liked the trio, perhaps recognizing in them the germs of piracy, and was loth to give them notice to quit. Not yet had they succeeded in finding their path to the sea. Peter had almost despaired of feeling the cool water swell and ebb about her ankles. A toy fishing-village. Patched roofs; thatched [] roofs; roofs both patched and thatched; wild and abandoned young roofs, seemingly kept only in their places by heavy chains or great slabs of stone.

Sturdy, ugly stone walls, defying the winds, that, despite protective arm, dealt sometimes roughly with toy villages. Dwellings of all shapes and sizes, impartial dwellings for lobster or fowl or human. Round windlass-tower, painted a startling white, presumably with what was left over from the coastguard stones. Wood and slate and tar. Overturned boats and baskets.

Nets hung to dry; smocks dangling to dry; dogs and children spread to dry; and on a rough bench outside the lifeboat shed, a row of old salts, bearded and tough and stringy, and beyond the utmost limits of dryness, so that the sun could do to them no more.

A toy village, no doubt! The kind that one has longed to play with, ever since first meeting it in picture book. Nor did it beguile with false whispers, as had done the rest of the false land of Cornwall. A way to the sea at last Merle and Peter ran shouting down and on and out, the length of a baby stone lug that curved into the water, thinking in its infant delusion, that it broke the force of the waves.

And there, at the very furthest end, they turned and surveyed Carn Trewoofa, spread in a glimmer of gold before them. And they remarked the multitude of boats strewn drunkenly on the cobbled slope from the shore to the first cluster of huts; remarked the fleet of boats that rocked and swung on the vivid green of the bay; green that beyond the lug deepened and glowed to shadowed ultramarine.

And they received a hint that somewhere was an inn; and somewhere else the twisted fragments of an ancient wreck; and all about [] were seagulls, swooping and balancing and shrieking. And well-pleased with this latest and most complete piece of nursery-ware designed for their happiness, they turned their gaze outwards, there to be met by a rust-red sail passing swift as a dream over the broken white wave-crests; while a mile nearer to the horizon, a quaint clockwork lighthouse reared itself from a group of rocks, and made believe to guard the bay.

Then Merle rubbed her eyes, and turned to Peter, and asked if it were really all to be had for the price of two-and-eleven-pence-halfpenny? Stuart joined them on the lug. I daresay it would be possible to break one off from the end. Perhaps if we sowed among them a few volumes of W. Jacobs—I say, come along and explore. They entered Carn Trewoofa softly, as if fearful it should break or melt or in some such magical fashion manifest its unreality. And, picking her way between rope and anchor and occasionally a stray doorstep where there was no door, Merle came to a correct conclusion regarding the origin of this wonder-corner: It was smell made concrete.

Someone had waved a wand over a handful of the richly mingled prevailing odour of seaweed and sea, tar and fish and clover, straw and fowl, soil and stone and lobster-pot; muttered a few compelling words—and the result was Carn Trewoofa. The trio were just able to add to their medley of impressions, the mad swirl of paths, seven to one hut, that none could tell its back nor yet its front; and the [] yet madder swirl of chickens, seventy to one hen, and seven orphans to boot.

Every ten yards traversed showed them a painted slab set in the wall, or in a door, or even on a roof; a slab and a slit and the word: Letters. They speculated what would happen if somebody failed to realize that this was a toy village, and posted real epistles in these alluring receptacles. Likewise he discovered the national fisheress costume to be a cricket-cap; and counted no less than eight of these articles in the wearing. And the Corsair lured them all to their destruction.

But their caps were washed up on the shore, and worn ever since by the Women of Carn Trewoofa. She nodded pleasantly to the three, and asked them in raucous Cornish whether they were strangers in the land.

Smilingly she indicated a grey stone cottage standing high on its own steps, a few paces up the hill; its blind patient eyes looking steadily across the bay, past the toy fishing-fleet, to where sea and sky merged in a blue quivering haze. And they each and all declared their intention of remaining in their new quarters, never again to return to the disapproving atmosphere of the Ocean Hotel.

Trenner beamed. They did not realize then that her rosy good-humour concealed the will of a Napoleon. For Mrs. Trenner was the autocrat of Carn Trewoofa; its leader and counsellor; by virtue of her unfailing prosperity and the excellence of her cooking. The sons and husbands of other women might drown at sea; not so Mrs. Therefore she wore her cricket-cap jauntily. On her indeed had fallen some of the radiance of that Star of Good Fortune under whose mellow auspices Stuart had been born.

She and Stuart became, in consequence, excellent friends, though the language they spoke was mutually uncanny and perplexing. And Stuart can return to the hotel and pack our suit-cases. Stuart demurred. He might cope with the Corsair, he said, were it not for the Five Females. So they all returned to the hotel, telling Mrs.

Trenner to have their dinner on the table that very evening. And they said this in all innocence, knowing nothing of the dinner, nor of what lay before them. She returned with a pennyworth of peardrops, and a fearsome account of an old ancient crone sitting in the kitchen, surrounded on floor, ceiling and walls, by china; a frenzied orgy of china; a veritable Bacchanal of china; china that sprouted and multiplied and literally asked for the destroying bull.

They were trudging up the cliff-path towards the Coastguard Station. Then Stuart sat down, and reproached her bitterly. Then he looked Peter full in the eyes; and she laughed aloud at his utter childishness, knowing of the man beneath; knowing he knew she was by now aware of it. And Merle laughed with her, unconscious as yet that two of the three were playing games no more. And Stuart, over an oozing pasty, declared that Mrs.

Trenner must be a reincarnation of the cook primarily responsible for Epicurean philosophy. Trenner was obviously not satisfied. However, thank goodness there can be nothing more to come now. Was it local fashion to consume this with their cheese-straws? Then, hovering uncertainly awhile, in the difficulty of removing herself through the door, without assistant impetus, Mrs.

They seem inclined to be friendly here. Outside the little square of window, the sky-colour was fast being drained and sucked into the West; and over the line of moor, a pale lemon-coloured moon wound and unwound herself like a dancer amidst trailing wisps of cloud, lilac and tender pink. Swaying rhythmically from the fading glow of day to the lifeless pallor of evening, the little dark fleet of fishing-boats could be glimpsed in the bay.

Something enormous hurled itself impotently against the wooden door, as they slammed it behind them. Her hand fumbled for the latch, could not find it; small wonder, since it existed on the further side of the door. The latter opened inwards. But Merle, sitting exhausted in the trough, avowed a firm refusal to share this harbour of refuge with aught whatsoever in the pork line.

Again and yet again did the ungainly monster hurl its quivering bulk to the assault, till the insecure building rocked and shook. Disgusted snortings and gruntings mingled pleasantly with the lash of the rain, and the distant chime of church-bells from Carn Trewoofa, six miles to the south from this clump of moorland huts and farms.

The pig rallied for yet a final onslaught. This time she was just able to inject a bristling snout Mud isna slate. A gurgle of laughter from Peter. Merle turned her back yet more squarely upon her irrepressible companions. Trenner understand what pudding we want for lunch. Then Peter and Stuart looked long upon her, and looked at each other and smiled. The call of diamonds. It would be ungrateful.

We may as well leave on Friday morning. And Stuart sat down beside her on the sofa, and discoursed pleasantly [] on the lake of fire and brimstone, till Mrs. Trenner appeared to introduce them to their lunch, in its raw and natural condition. After which, she retired to cook it. Even Carn Trewoofa is no stranger to certain conditions of etiquette. Peter wore a floppy crimson cap on her pale tangle of hair. They did not speak; only gazed outwards, to desolate seas beyond the seas that have an end; and waited The lapping of water was the only sound.

A wee crab, a green crab, waddled crookedly forth to examine with interest the thirty toes dangling into his private pool. Seven days now had they tarried in Carn Trewoofa, and had not yet succeeded in being Caught by the Tide. Therefore shame was upon them.

And if they elude us, they will regard our strength and our cunning as mere attributes in a game of play invented by themselves. They are not as others, these strangers in the land. So we will not be beguiled into an attempt to drown them. They shall return to their homes without the supreme wonder and glory of being Caught by the Tide. And when they had been fully nineteen minutes on the outermost rock of all, waiting And sorrowfully they rose, and picked their way over the slippery boulders, towards the beckoning grey cottage that stood high on its own steps, a few paces up the hill.

The little south-westerly breeze had become a south-westerly gale. It blew a great restlessness into Stuart that evening, so that he walked ceaselessly from window to door of the cottage, and at last suggested going forth to meet the elements squarely, and without the intervention of stone or glass.

Here the wind caught them; not erratically, nor in gasping squally fashion, but a massed wall of wind, blowing steadily, straight and hard from across the sea, with never a swell nor yet a drop in the strength and sound of it. A mighty cleansing wind, causing every muscle and nerve of the body to be braced in resistance, without a second of rest or relaxation. From far below, echoed the cold crash of breakers on the rocks. Far above, torn battalions of cloud swirled witlessly across a shuddering moon.

Stuart swung on, unfaltering; Peter followed as best she might. Once she stumbled. He stopped, and flung a guiding arm about her. They pressed forward, eluding carefully what they thought was bog-land, only to discover on looking back, that they had been tricked by shadows. And shadows, again, resolved themselves into marsh-patches, yielding and treacherous.

A fine rain sprayed their coats to a glitter. The moon had been beaten from her fields, leaving the world in a roar of darkness Once they halted abruptly on the verge of nothing, where the land had been eaten away. Peter and Stuart stood motionless for several moments, rigid bodies thrusting at the wall of wind, that blew with never a drop nor yet a swell in the strength and sound of it; stripped from them all memory of a narrower stuffier world.

With a laugh, he turned, strode back to the mainland. Then, facing suddenly round, met her scrambling [] down from the granite. Met her, and put his arms about her—this time neither in support nor in guidance, but fiercely, and because of the thing that had lain crouching between them, now storm-whipped to sudden life.

Her short hair beat and stung against his face. Their lips were stiff and crusted with salt. It was not a night for words. Once he spoke her name Later, swinging down the homeward path, they came upon sight of Carn Trewoofa, three or four stray lights splashing the darkness.

Good to imagine her sitting in the battered arm-chair by the window, thinking of the other two in the turmoil outside. Mentally and physically, they allowed themselves now to flop; excluding long tramps and dangerous climbs; mooching for the most part in and about the village, or among the shallower rocks; hardly talking; secure in the friendship that took much for granted. The morning before Carn Trewoofa was to see the last of them, they awoke to a drenching downpour, which beat sea and moor and sky to one sodden colourless pulp.

All day long the rain descended sullenly; and towards evening Merle coaxed Mrs. Trenner to transfer live fire, leaping and flaming on a shovel, from her kitchen to their sitting-room grate. Then she and Peter drew up their arm-chairs, definitely abandoned all idea of making an effort, and allowed themselves to be lulled to that half-hypnotic state of coma produced by warmth within and rain without; hush unbroken save by the muffled boom of unseen breakers on the beach.

Dusk and the rain joined hands beyond the streaming squares of window. The moving world was very far away from Carn Trewoofa in its greyness. From the kitchen, two voices rose and fell in sing-song fashion; not seeming to belong to Mrs. Trenner or Bessy or any human shape; merely voices, monotonous, ceaseless, chanting. Merle had since several minutes been watching Peter intently. Up and down the Park for twenty minutes every day?

The fat creamy one. She pulled the two elephants from the mantelpiece, and laid one at rest in either shoe Yes, it does, Merle—honest injun! But your marshes are specially bad. Tell me some more. So do soldiers marching past; and a cheering crowd. And when I read about lonely children, I cry. The fire yawned audibly, and plopped a coal into the stillness. The sense of isolation was thick as cotton-wool. Then a loud and penetrating double knock.

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